Thursday, March 20, 2014



Troubled Galaxy Destroyed Dreams: Chapter 146

Palash Biswas

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Coordinates: (find coordinates)
Time zone: IST (UTC+5:30)
Country  India
State Uttarakhand
District(s) Udham Singh Nagar
Population 8,856 (2001[update])
Dineshpur is a town and a nagar panchayat in Udham Singh Nagar district in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

[edit] Demographics
As of 2001[update] India census[1], Dineshpur had a population of 8856. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Dineshpur has an average literacy rate of 57%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 55% and, female literacy is 42%. In Dineshpur, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. it has only one English medium school best school of the locality named as "New Era Public School"
My youngest brother PANCHANAN whom we call Panchoo, called me this morning and informed that my friend KRISHANA, Krishna Pad Mandal died last night at 3AM. He was trying again and again but could not connect me earlier. My son Tussu alias STEVE has an EXTENDED Friend circle and thanks to them my land phone remains all time busy. More over, I had to opt for DATAPHONE dial up for internet connection due to DOWNLOAD BILLING unbearable! I have a CELL PHONE. In fact, I avoid mobile phone due to unnecessary engagement all the time. It remains with my wife. REDS friends based in Bangalore, gifted me a CELL Phone last year to get me connected. But I got the set BURNT by overcharging. Since then , a friend engaged in repairing mobile phones gave me an old NOKIA SET. But the Batterry betrays now and then like my Mraxist frinds boasting commitment and ideology! I have to visit Maharashtra since next 26 january. Friends based in Maharashtra are finalising my schedule there. But connectivity remains a great problem for me nowadays despite a telephone bill amounting about Rs Five Thousand this time.
I got the news very late. had I recieved the news earlier, perhaps it would not make any difference. Just because of distance, Time and Money Crunch I could not manage to revisit my native Village BASANTIPUR since my mother BASANTI DEVI  died in June, 2006. I am IMPULSIVE and quite a HEADSTRONG person as my friends complain. May be I am. But it happened like this thta while i left my home in Basantipur, I, for the first time in my life, bowed before the TULSI BIRWA denoting HOME GODDESS! The FEELING was overwhelming as I felt afraid that may be, I would not be able to return. All elders in the family expired. My mother was the last one. it had to be my number next time, I thought. But it was the number for my nephew, the eldest son of my cosin sister MEERADI, SHEKHAR. but I could not visit home. Meanwhile I visited Patna, new delhi, Bhuvneshwar and many places in West Bengal. But it never happened to be BASANTIPUR.
In 1990, my nephew, just six year old BIPLAB died while I was in Bareilly. he expired in the night and we reached home by afternoon. The death made me DETACHED. Since then, I was never afraid of DEATH. All elders passed away one by one, I did not weep.
Today, it was very hard for me once again as i had to struggle to stop tears!
My heart is exposed so wildly. My wife went Open Heart surgery in June, 1995. She was operated by DR Devi Shetty in BM Birla heart research centre, kolkata. Savita`s RIBs were cut through for the open heart surgery. Even after the time of years spent after the Open heart surgey she has to cry with PAIN. I feel PAINED in such a fashion leaving my VILLGE long before driven by sheer ambition to be recognised. I am not a little bit recognised as yet. But i have been disassociated with my family, home, Village and childhood for ever.
But my Childhood haunts me like BROKEN RIBs of my ailing wife! She is under medical supervision for which I have to earn a minimum amount every month despite my anarchist life style! I am not MAXIM GORKY or LEON URIS as I could be able to place my HEART in Mcroscope in PRINT. We lived the GHETTO life and brought up as all black Untouchables are born and brought up!
I have written it so many times that BASANTIPUR happens to be an Extended family set up by my late father and his comrades who got their last shelter in nainital Terai after roaming in West Bengal and Orisssa being ejected out of Home land in east Bengal due to Partition haolocaust. Only two persons Gyanendra Mandal and Ganesh Mandal above eighty years, two persons crossin seventies KARTIK SANA and BIDHU ADHIKARI and three persons crossing sixty five Hari Mohan biswas, Pulin Gaine and Shishubar Mandal survived while I visited my village last time who suffered the pangs and plights of partition.
A full generation between 55 to 65 is wiped out slowly and consistantly.
KRISHNA aged Fifty Five was senior most amongst us.
As the LEGEND realted to Nainital Terai goes on , it is believed that the Terai belt had been INHIBITED seven times and had been destroyed SEVEN TIMES. Present population happens to be the eighth one. The region came into lime light by no one else but a personality like GIM CORBETT famous for his writings like Man eaters of Kumaun! Corbett encountered the man eaters as well as the legendary Daku of Terai region SULTANA DAKU! But a dare devil person like CORBETT also avoided to tread RUDRAPUR PANTNAGAR DINESHPUR GULARBHOJ region as it was CURSED with FLOODS, PLAUGE and MALARIA! Thoght the RAILWAY Network connected Gularbhoj with Kashipur Lalkuan meter gauge line in BRITISH period for TIMBER BUSINESS! Rest of the zone had been untouched. As the chief minister of UTTAR PRADESH, Pdt Govind Ballabh Pant failed to convince the Hill people to inhibit terai. The Desi Kings, Nawabs, Princes, OFFICERS, Service Men and Indian capitalist of the colony used the REGION as HUNTING GROUND. They used to camp here and there for Hunting Purpose only. the Mughals and Pathans were afraid of the region. Riast RAMPUR had most of the property in the area near BILASHPUR and GADARPUR but they could not manage it. In accordance with the Legend RUDRAPUR, the present head quarter of UDHAM SINGH NAGAR District was the CAPITAL of KING RUDRA. He lost his way in the JUNGLE and DEVI ATARIA appered. So we had to participate in ATARIA MELA. Now the venue has become the DISTRICT HEAD QUARTER! Kashipur remained the place governed BY Devi Chaiti. But either of the goddesses could not prevent PLAGUE and MALARIA in Terai. TYher had been a KHAM SUPERINTENDENT who was responsible to see the FOREST LAND. He could allot land to anyone. The KHAM Bandobast remained till 1952. IAS, IPS officers, MILITARY Officers, Kings and Princes, Nawabs, Political leaders like Prakash Ningh Badal, Pratap singh Kainro, Surajeet singh Barnala, CB GUPTA, HEMBATI NANDAN Bahuguna, ND TIWARI, Styendra Guria, Rajmangal Tiwari, Industrialists, business houses, Film stras like Dharmendra and Shashikala  got farming land in Terai. The KHAM SUPER alloted thosands acres of land on any paper available even on cigarrette packet  at the rate of RS ONE only. PRAG Farm had 72 thusands acres of land only. ther had been no ceiling. But the cultivation deep on the forest was impossible due to the absence of labour force. Tharu and BUKDSHA tribals inhabited the Jungles only. they knew only JHOOM cultivation.
According to Historians, hundreds of years ago village Rudrapur was established by a devotee of lord Rudra or by Hindu tribal chief called Rudra, which has passed through phases of development to take the shape of city Rudrapur. The importance of Rudrapur has increased as it is the head quarter of district Udham Singh Nagar. During the reigns of mughal emperor Akbar this land was handed over to king Rudra Chandra in 1588. The king established a permanent millitary camp to free tarai from day today invasions. Totaly neglected village Rudrapur was filled with new colours and human activities.There is a saying that Rudrapur was named after king Rudra ChandraDuring the reigns of Britishers, Nainital was made a district and in 1864-65 the whole Tarai and Bhawar was put under "Tarai and Bhawar Government Act" which was governed directly by the British crown.
The history of development started with 1948, when the problem of partition brought refugee problem with it. Immigrant from north west and eastern areas were reestablished in 164.2 square km land area under "up nivesh yojana". Personal dwellers were not alllotted land in accordance with crown grant act. The first batch of immigrants came in December 1948.
People from Kashmir,Punjab,Kerala,Eastern UP,Garhwal, Kumaion,Bengal, Hariyana,Rajasthan, Nepal, and Naidu live in groups in this districts.This country is an example of unity in diversity with people from many religions and professions and so is this Tarai, which has its heart at Rudrapur. Due to this Tarai was named MINI HINDUSTAN.
According to a folktale when king Rudra was passing through, his chariot got stuck into marshy land, so he decided to build a temple and well at that place. The present Atariya temple is the same At a distance of 2 kms. from the bus stand and half a kilometre away from the Rudraur-Haldwani motor route. Every year during the occasion of 'Navratras' a large fair is held here and thousands of devotees come to seek the blessing of Goddess Atariya. The fair is held for 10 days.

In 1922, no less than FORTY BUKSHA Villages in between bilashpur and gadarpur perished suffereing PLAGUE! The panic was so great that the GURKHAS ruling Kumaun and garwal never tried any adventure in the TERAI. DEFEATING the Gurkhas, the BRITISH EMPIRE failed to colonise the Jungle of Terai. hence the KHAM Bandobast was INTRODUCED to make INHIBTION possible.
In 1952, Kham bandobasta was cancelled. meanwhile the Government of India had to encounter the problem to rehabiliate the REFUGEES from East Bengal and Punjab, PDT Nehru was POSING as Socialist and had adopted SOVIOT DEVELPOPMENT Pattern. He planned to rehabiliate the East bengal and Punjabi partition victim refugees along with FREEDOM Fighters in the Terai in a COMMUNE PATTERN in which land Settlement societies had to be leased land for 99 years.
Basantipur was also a land settlement society! Which came up along with UDAINAGAR and panchananpur after REFUGEE MOVEMENT led by may father in 1956 in Rudrapur. The Refugges in agitation had been dumped into deep forest of KELAJKHERA before the REHANBILIATION Plan finalised. Our people were stranded in Vijay nagar camp. rest of 33 bengali colonies were set up during 1952 to 54 along with SIKH and RAI SIKH refugees. Dinshpur was the centre of bengali colonies. In 1960, the UP Government colonised Shaktifarm 36 KM away and sitautae and surrounded by Jungle.
In our childhood, we enjoyed the WILD LIFE very musch and had been habitual to live with Tigers, Elephants, Bears, Deer, Hares, Foxes and so many species of BIRDS. All the rivers and rivulets flowing from the Hills were UNBOUND.
Luckily, Plague did not return in TERAI next time. So terai SURVIVED this time but it was STRUCK by Land and political Mafia against which DHEEMRI BLOCK Peasants` UPRISING took place and once again my father was the leader.
But our people suffered from Malaria, Dysentry, Influenza, Gastric Alsur and so on. Child death was daily affair and we had not to weep for dead children or Older people! So many children in our own family expired in early months that we could not remember!
We got DEEP TUBE Well water only after 1967. Meanwhile GASTRIC Ulsur appeared like Destiny Reincarnated in DEATH.  We had the most popular jatra Party in the Region. Even today, BASANTIPUR Cultuarl team is well known al over UTTARAKHAND. The JATRA party PERISHED only Kartik SANA , the Hero survives as HERO never dies! Phani Dhali, Haju Sana, Haripada Mandal, Pado Gaine, Mahahendra Mandal, all of them popular artists died suffering Gastric Ulser! The generation Next after the ELDERS who would have consist 55 to 65 age group was CURSED with Terai Epidemics and Persished.
I may not remeber a single INSTANCE while Krishna and ME had any difference on any issue. He lost his father in 1975 while he was a student of class eleven perhaps. he belonged to Paundra KSHATRIYA caste. Most of Basantipur residents belonged to this caste barring a few being Namashudra, malo, Mahishya and kayashtha. We had two Brahmin families for supervising our rituals, The chakrabarties and the Chatterjees!
Krishna`s father was a tall, healthy man and he was the President of the land settlement society. He was responsible for our defence and all internal affairs. Shishubar Mandal was a literate man and he was the cashier who kept accounts of the Village. Atul Sheel, by caste a BARBER, was the secretary. He died after my father in 2002. I had a miracle amongst the VILLAGE Children. As I had some or other WAVELENGTH to connect with all the ELDER People in the villages. Wheteher they would differ in Opinion , they would never reject my suggestion. Mandar Babu and his wife loved me most. Though KRISHNA was two orthree years older then me, Mandar Babu on Death Bed told me to care for KRISHNA.
krishan was our Captain. In the Village as well as in the SCHOOL. He was expert in every game. he had been a Marvellous ATHELETE. We made him our CLUB President. I was the Secretary. We never had nay diference. in fact, Basantipur People as well as the Children had no difference at any point of time. We had to struggle all the time and we knew well that we would not be able to sustain ourselves if divide. We were afraid of PARTITION anymore. hence, the Bengalies always accepted PULIN Babu, my father  as  CONSENSUS unopposed leader in nainital district as well as all over in UTTAR PRADESH.
People from Barishal and Khulna districts  were traditionally habitual of CHILD MARRIAGE. Specially the Paundra Kshatriyas. krishna got married in 1973 while he was a student of class Nine and I just appeared in Highschool exams. She was the sister of one of our Schoolfriend JAMINI from Makarandpur. The girl was beautiful and elegant. They got a BOY cllaed Pardeep and a Girl, I always confuse the name as Krishan`s sister Arati was so dear to all of us. I always nake the mistake to call the daughter as AARATI!
While I was in Dhanbad, we got the news just after Savita settled with me, Krishan`s wife expired! Krishna was just in twenties but he never did think of Remarriage despite Pressure from friends, kith and kin. Pardip got married while I was well settled in Kolkata. But the Daughter was studying in College in rudrapur and all of us were worried to get her married.
Everytime I visited Basantipur, the FATHER and the DAUGHTER would recive me in front of their home. They would spend all the time on the cot. Whenevr I left the Village , they would say me good bye.
Krishna proved to be  a popular leader and had been elected as Panchayat Pradhan for long time. He was also popular amongst the Sikhs. I would meet all the Sikhs at his home everytime. The seta has been reserved for woman now. Krishna never tried to hold on power as he could opt for woman candiate  from his family. the daughter was quite elgible. He has Five Brothers and so many cousins. But he supported a vilage woman, the wife of Kangal. kangal is very junior to us.
Last Winter only, Krishna called me and informed that the daughter has to get married and I have to reach Home. I could not. the daughter got married last year and lost her father and our Friend this year!

Udham Singh Nagar was a portion of district Nainital before the Tarai belt was separated to form the present Udham Singh Nagar on 30/09/1995. In the past this land which is full of forest land was neglected till 1948 due to difficult climate. Marshy lands, extreme heat, rains which lasted months,a place full of wild animals, diseases and no means of transportation prevented the human race to form a colony here.
According to Historians, hundreds of years ago village Rudrapur was established by a devotee of lord Rudra or by Hindu tribal chief called Rudra, which has passed through phases of development to take the shape of city Rudrapur. The importance of Rudrapur has increased as it is the head quarter of district Udham Singh Nagar. During the reigns of mughal emperor Akbar this land was handed over to king Rudra Chandra in 1588. The king established a permanent millitary camp to free tarai from day today invasions. Totaly neglected village Rudrapur was filled with new colours and human activities.There is a saying that Rudrapur was named after king Rudra Chandra.
During the reigns of Britishers, Nainital was made a district and in 1864-65 the whole Tarai and Bhawar was put under "Tarai and Bhawar Government Act" which was governed directly by the British crown.
The history of development started with 1948, when the problem of partition brought refugee problem with it. Immigrant from north west and eastern areas were reestablished in 164.2 square km land area under "up nivesh yojana". Personal dwellers were not alllotted land in accordance with crown grant act. The first batch of immigrants came in December 1948.
People from Kashmir,Punjab,Kerala,Eastern UP,Garhwal, Kumaion,Bengal, Hariyana,Rajasthan, Nepal, and Naidu live in groups in this districts.This country is an example of unity in diversity with people from many religions and professions and so is this Tarai, which has its heart at Rudrapur. Due to this Tarai was named MINI HINDUSTAN.
The district is situated at 28 degree south east, 30 degree north latitude, 78 degree and 81 degree east longitude of Kumaion. Nainital is to the north, Bijnour, Moradabad,Rampur to west,Bareilly, Pilibhit to south and district Champawat is in the east of this district. South east lies the border of Nepal. Reserved forest area lies at the borders of district Nainital and Champawat. The total district is Tarai. Water is available at the depth of 10 to 20 meters. Due to its special geographical structure the district is leader in agriculture in the country. The district is situated at 28 degree south east, 30 degree north latitude, 78 degree and 81 degree east longitude of Kumaon. Nainital is to the north, Bijnour, Moradabad, Rampur to west, Bareilly, Pilibhit to south and district Champawat is in the east of this district. South east lies the border of Nepal. Reserved forest area lies at the borders of district Nainital and Champawat. The total district is Tarai. Water is available at the depth of 10 to 20 meters. Due to its special geographical structure the district is leader in agriculture in the country. The area of the district is 3055 square km. It is divided into three parganas, 4 tehsils,2 sub tehsils. There are 669 revenue villages and 15 forest villages. Out of 669 villages 298 villages are in tehsils Kashipur, 159 in tehsil Kichha, 122 villages are in tehsil Sitarganj and 90 in tehsil Khatima. There are 7 blocks for development work. They are Jaspur, Kashipur, Bajpur, Gadarpur, Rudrapur, Sitarganj and Khatima. These 7 blocks are further divided into 27 Nyaya Panchayat and 326 village Panchayat. Urban area is divided into 8 Palika Parishad Jaspur, Kashipur, Bajpur, Gadarpur,. Rudrapur, Kichha, Sitarganj and Khatima and 7 Nagar Panchayat MahuaDabra, Mahuakheraganj, Kelakhera, Dineshpur, Sultanpur Patti and ShaktiGarh. POPULATION AND DENSITY ,CENSUS:- According to 1991 census population of Udham singh Nagar is 9.15 Lakhs In which 4.91 Lakhs are Male and 4.24 lakhs are Female. Schedule caste population is 1.21 lakhs and schedule tribe population is .86 lakhs.According to 1991 census total area of Udham Singh Nagar is 1.12 percent of U.P and .65 percent people of the total of U.P. reside here. Population density of U.P is 473 per square kilometer and population density of this district is 299 per square kilometer. In comparison with Uttaranchal 5.75 percent area is of Udham Singh Nagar. Population density of uttaranchal is 132 per square kilometer and this district has 299 per sqaure kilometer. 9.8 percent schedule caste and 40.7 % schedule tribe of Uttaranchal reside in Udham Singh Nagar. According to the census of 1991, 39.3 percent are literate. In literate persons 66.7 % are male and 33.3 % are female. According to the census of the 1991 the number of residential houses in the district is 148497 in which 100089 are in rural area and 48408 are in urban area. According to the 1991 census 153484 families live here . 102444 families are in rural area and 51040 are in urban area.
 1989 Acre

 61,280 (only town as per 1991 census)

 550 Mtr


 Light Cotton,Wollen

STD Code

 Round the year

Pin Code

 Places Of Worship:
Nanak Matta Gurudwara, Panch Mandir, Shiva Temple
Atariya Devi Mandir,Chaiti Mandir Kashipur
Government Accomodation
Irrigation Deptt. Inspection House
Forest Rest House
P.W.D Inspection House



Air: Nearest Airport- PantNagar, 11 Km

Rail: Udham Singh Nagar(Rudrapur) is well connected to Delhi, Lucknow and Calcutta by broad guage line having 14 railway stations in total.

Road: Udham Singh Nagar (Rudrapur) is well connected to important towns and cities country and nearby area having 144 bus stations/halts.

Major Towns of Udham Singh Nagar District
Rudrapur .....................Dineshpur
Khatima ................................Shaktigarh
Sitarganj ............................................Kelakhera
Kichha ..............................Sultanpur Patti
Gadarpur ................Mahua Kheraganj
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        Probe ordered into Khateema encounter
        13 Jan 2009, 0319 hrs IST, D S Kunwar, TNN
        NAINITAL: A magisterial probe has been ordered into an alleged fake encounter by the Udham Singh Nagar police in which a 
        23-year-old youth, identified as Ajay Kumar, was killed near Khateema town on Saturday.
      1. I-G (Kumaon) Ajay Kumar said the probe was ordered on a directive by CM BC Khanduri. District magistrate SS Negi has asked sub-divisional magistrate, Khateema, C Chalal to investigate the circumstances leading to the incident and submit the findings within a fortnight.
      2. According to the police, Ajay Kumar who was wanted in a murder case, tried to kidnap a 21-year-old married woman, Chandra, from his house at Jhankia village at gunpoint. She raised an alarm. Hearing her cries, villagers gathered there and also informed the police.
      3. On seeing the police party, Ajay threatened to shoot Chandra. But the policemen were not cowed down. As they moved to arrest him, he shot at Chandra's leg, injuring her.
      4. But for some reason, Ajay suddenly changed the mind and decided to surrender. Eyewitness said he was moving toward the police party to surrender when the latter allegedly fired at him, killing him on the spot.
      5. Police said Ajay had killed Seetaram, a resident of the same village, because he had objected to his affair with Chandra's sister Maya. Chandra, too, had objected to their relationship. Angry at the opposition, Ajay and Maya allegedly conspired to kill Seetaram.
      6. The couple was booked for Seetaram's murder. However, Ajay managed to give the police the slip and had been absconding since then. Maya was arrested and sent to jail.
      7. It is not clear why Ajay come to Chandra's house and tried to kidnap her on Saturday afternoon, police said.
      8.  confrontation in the Terai
        in Udham Singh Nagar
      9. "Udham Singh Nagar hamara aangan hai. Aangan ke bina ghar bana ke kya faida? Udham Singh Nagar nahi hai to Uttarakhand banana hi nahi chahiye"
        (Udham Singh Nagar is our courtyard. What is the use of building a house without a courtyard? There is no point in creating the new State of Uttarakhand without Udham Singh Nagar).
             - Sheela Badauni, leader of the Uttarakhand Samyukth Sangharsh Samiti.
      10. "When the Terai region was part of Nainital district, none of the benefits given to the hill people came to the other residents. These were denied under the pretext that the Terai was not at a sufficient altitude to be called a hill region. Now, when the Terai is no longer part of Nainital but is in the new district of Udham Singh Nagar, it is being argued that we have to be part of the hills. We are not ready to accept this strange argument. Becoming a part of the new State is detrimental to our social, political and economic interests."
             - Rajesh Shukla, general secretary of the Udham Singh Nagar Raksha Samiti (USNRS).
      11. CONFLICTING views such as these have made the 12 districts in and around the Kumaon and Garhwal hills in Uttar Pradesh the arena for an intense political battle after the Central Government announced that it would carve out from U.P a new State, Uttaranchal. The developments in these districts point to a period of turbulence, similar to the one that was created by the movement for a separate State of Uttarakhand in the mid-1990s.
      12. The USNRS has launched an agitation demanding the exclusion of the Terai region from Uttaranchal. Significantly, the agitation has had its echo in New Delhi and even Chandigarh. Apart from the support it has received from the U.P.-based Samajwadi Party (S.P.), the movement has drawn sustenance from the Shiromani Akali Dal, which is a coalition partner of the Bharatiya Janata Party at the Centre and in Punjab. Punjab Chief Minister Prakash Singh Badal has intervened on behalf of the USNRS.
      13. The Akali Dal's interest derives essentially from the large Sikh population in Udham Singh Nagar district - approximately 3.7 lakhs out of a total population of 10.5 lakhs, according to informal estimates. The Akali leadership took up the issue with the Centre on behalf of the USNRS but failed to bring about a settlement.
      14. The USNRS appears to be ready to go all out in its fight to get the district excluded from the new State. It called a two-day bandh in the district from July 9. Its leaders told Frontline that if the Centre still refused to concede its demand, the agitation would grow into indefinite bandhs, hartals and blockade of roads. This is bound to cripple the economy of the Kumaon hills as the territory is dependent on Udham Singh Nagar district even for basic needs such as food. The road that passes through the district connects Kumaon hills with the rest of U.P.
      15. Economic factors are central to the dispute. Leaders of the Uttarakhand movement say that the economic viability of the new State will depend largely on Udham Singh Nagar district. Sheela Badauni told Frontline that if the district was taken away, Uttarakhand would lose the bulk of its agricultural production. She said that rich landlords who controlled agriculture to a large extent feared that they would lose their big holdings once Uttaranchal was formed. In a hill State the ceiling on agricultural land would be 1.6 hectares (four acres) compared to 7.29 ha (18 acres) and 5.062 ha (12 acres) elsewhere in U.P.
      16. Many landlords are said to own more than 40 ha of land in benami names in violation of the land ceiling Act. Badauni alleged that they had encroached forest areas and government land. Their hold on land would end once the region became part of the new State, Badauni pointed out.
      17. By all indications, the fear of loss of the large holdings seems to be a major concern with many USNRS leaders. Significantly, it is not just farmers who have a stake in the region's agriculture; among those who have had holdings here are politicians, bureaucrats and retired Army officers. Politicians who have assets here include Badal and Haryana Congress(I) leader Bhupinder Singh Hooda. A 40-ha farm owned by Badal's family on the Nainital-Bhajpur road has been up for sale since the beginning of the year.
      18. The Badal family had sold half of its property in the region by the first week of July. Rajinder Singh, a farmer who bought 8.1 ha with three others, said that the signatories to the sale deed included the Chief Minister's son, Sukhbir Singh Badal, who is the Union Minister of State for Industry, and six others. The family's eagerness to sell the property has raised doubts whether the Chief Minister and his relatives had prior knowledge about the formation of the new State. Interestingly, other big farmers are fighting hard to retain their holdings.
      19. Leaders of the USNRS, however, deny that the agitation has anything to do with the large holdings. Rajesh Shukla said that as many as 274 of the 312 gram pramukhs in the district had conducted a referendum in their villages and that, based on the results, submitted in writing that they did not want their village to be part of Uttaranchal. They include people belonging to various communities, such as Bengalis, Sikhs and people from eastern U.P. He asks: "Are all the villagers and their pramukhs big landlords? Are all of them trying to retain large holdings? "
      20. Gyanendrajit Singh, who belongs to one of the families that settled in the Terai in the 1950s, said that immediately after Independence the Government had offered land to the hill people but the majority of them did not want to take up the challenge posed by the harsh physical conditions in the region. "Our forefathers faced the rough weather and wild animals and cleared the jungle to make the Terai the fertile place it is today. Now, when the region has become a granary of Uttar Pradesh, they want to take it all away from us, on the strength of the political power they will acquire in the new State," he said.
      21. There is no denying that the Terai has developed phenomenally since the arrival of the first settlers from Punjab and the plains of eastern U.P. in 1949. The region has not only advanced in terms of agricultural produce, but attracted agro-based industries, including private conglomerates such as Hindustan Lever Limited and the Pepsi group. There are 10 sugar mills and 250 rice mills in and around Udham Singh Nagar district.
      22. Ramesh Chandra Agarwal is the owner of Vijaya Rice Mill, a group of rice mills, which generates a revenue of Rs.4 crores for the Government. He said that his group accounted for almost 25 per cent of the total levy that the Government collected from rice mills. He runs his business not only from Udham Singh Nagar but from 10 districts within a radius of 250 km. He said, "All this will end once we become part of Uttaranchal; the farmers have to pay double tax to bring paddy to our mills, which will be in a different State."
      23. Rajesh Shukla said that the prosperity of Udham Singh Nagar would be a thing of the past. "It is not good, either for Uttar Pradesh or for Uttarakhand." He said that Udham Singh Nagar district was created in 1995 by the Mayawati-led Bahujan Samaj Party-BJP Government to prevent the inclusion of the region in Uttarakhand.
      24. It is difficult to determine the accuracy of this statement but it is true that the USNRS has received support from several quarters, one of them being former Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav, during whose tenure the Rama Shankar Kaushik Committee recommended the creation of Uttarakhand. Former Union Minister Balwant Singh Ramoowalia and Communist Party of India (Marxist) general secretary Harkishan Singh Surjeet have addressed meetings held in support of the USNRS cause.
      25. Among USNRS activists, there is a stream of opinion that Udham Singh Nagar can be part of Uttaranchal if more areas from the plains, such as portions of Hardwar, Bareilly and Bijnore, are included in the new State. Yashwant Kumar Mishra, a member of the USNRS central committee, said that they should have enough demographic strength to counter the hill people. Clearly, this fight between the people of the hills and the plains in the Terai is all set to take an ugly turn.
      26. Udham Singh Nagar an integral part of Kumaon, says K C Pant
        Former Union minister K C Pant today said Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh belonged to the Kumaon region uninterruptedly for over a thousand years, and described the controversy regarding its inclusion in the proposed Uttaranchal state as ''unnecessary''.
      27. In a statement in New Delhi, Pant pointed out that when the Kumaon and Garhwal divisions were formed in 1968, Uttarakhand consisted eight districts. The UP assembly unanimously passed resolutions in 1991 and 1994 urging the Centre to carve out a new state consisting of the same districts -- Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Uttarkashi, Tehri, Pauri, Dehradun and Chamoli.
      28. Between 1996 and 1998, these eight districts were rearranged to create four more districts -- Uttam Singh Nagar, Champavat, Bageshwar and Rudraprayag. ''Now Uttarakhand consists of 12 districts instead of eight without any change in its territorial area. There is no scope for confusion about Udham Singh Nagar being an integral part of Kumaon,'' he said.
      29. ''Right from ancient times, the Terai and Bhabar have been an integral part of Uttarakhand ... The district of Nainital, including the Terai region, was formed in 1862 and there was no change in its composition till 1996 when Udham Singh Nagar was artificially fractured encompassing the Terai area of Nainital,'' Pant said.
      30. Referring to the social fabric of Udham Singh Nagar, he said,''It will be misleading for anyone to claim that any group or community in the mixed population has a majority or dominant position. Udham Singh Nagar is more like a much coloured bouquet rather than a monochromatic clutch of flowers.''
      31. Welcoming the proposal for the formation of Uttaranchal, he said, ''In a small state, the various groups will have their interests better looked after and have much more influence in running the affairs of the state.''
      32. UNI
        Udham Singh Nagar is situated at an average altitude of 550 meters above sea-level and has a big impact of Punjabi culture on it. It is surrounded on all sides by the Great Himalayas and offers unmatched visual delight to the visitor’s eyes and inner peace to the soul.

      33. The Trivia
      34.       Named after the brave freedom fighter Late Shri Udham Singh who gunned down General Dyre, the man behind the brutal Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919, the place has a special significance due to this very fact.

      35. Fairs and Festivals
      36. Tharuwat Buxad Mahotsav
      37.     Organised in December every year, this fair displays the folk dances, traditions and handicrafts of the two tribes that are, namely, Tharuwat and Buxad. Many cultural events are organised on the occasion.
      38. Terai Utsav
      39.    This fair is organised at Rudrapur to celebrate and portray the unique lifestyle, the culture and the traditions of the people residing in the Terai region. It is a gala affair attracting tourists from far and wide.

      40.          Apart from these two, the Ataria fair and Chaiti fair are prominent among the festivities of the region. 

      41. Attractions
      42. Chaiti Temple
      43.       The widely known temple of Chaiti Devi is situated on the Kashipur-Bajpur. It is 2.5 kms. away from Kashipur. A large fair is organised here every year in the month of March during 'Navratras'. An outrageously large number of devotees visit the fair to seek blessings of the Goddess.
      44. Nanak Matta
      45.         Nanakmatta is a very significant pilgrimage centre of the Sikhs. The first Guru of the Sikh Panth, Guru Nanak, is believed to have visited the place. It is at a distance of 56 kms. from Rudrapur, lying on the Rudrapur-Tanakpur route. Thousands of pilgrims throng the place throughout the twelve months of the year.
      46.        Purnagiri and Atariya, where a 10-day fair is held every year in the month of “Navratras”, are the other places worth visiting in the vicinity of Udham Singh Nagar.

      47. Getting to Udham Singh Nagar
      48. The nearest Airport is at Pant Nagar, 11kms away and railway links with cities like Delhi, Lucknow and Calcutta exist with a large number of trains plying on the route.
      49.  By road too, Udham Singh Nagar is very well connected. The distance of some big towns and cities from here is:
      50. Delhi  (254kms)
        Agra (301kms)
        Lucknow (343kms)
        Faizabad (473kms)
        Ayodhya (481kms)
        Haridwar  (228kms)
      51. Unrest in Little Punjab
        The inclusion of Udham Singh Nagar in the proposed state of Uttaranchal threatens the prosperity of the district's affluent Punjabi community.
      52. By Farzand Ahmed
      53. It's the road to prosperity, literally. The highway from Khatima to Panipat travels through 150 km of Udham Singh Nagar. On either side are sugarcane fields, rice mills, paper mills, besides numerous small-scale industrial units. The highway, as District Magistrate Narendra Bhushan, puts it, is the "lifeline of Udham Singh Nagar". The district itself, with its 9.5 lakh population, is among the richest in the country.
      54. Now, the wealth which was once Udham Singh Nagar's pride has become a bone of contention. The BJP-led Central Government has announced plans to include it in the upcoming Uttaranchal state. This move is being opposed by influential forces which have a stake in the district. Among them is the Akali Dal, the BJP's coalition partner at the Centre and in Punjab.
      55. As frequent bandhs paralysed life in Udham Singh Nagar over the past week, the conflict exacerbated. The official BJP position, as articulated by Home Minister L.K. Advani and Human Resource Development Minister Murli Manohar Joshi, is that keeping Udham Singh Nagar in Uttar Pradesh is "not feasible constitutionally". The Akalis, on their part, have vowed to vote against the Uttaranchal Bill in the Lok Sabha, perhaps even walk out of the alliance. Akali leaders talk of the BJP being unreasonable. Manjit Singh Calcutta even accused the BJP of "behaving like a baniya (trader)".
      56. The political response has been swift. Chief Minister Kalyan Singh asked the local unit of the BJP to oppose the Akali demand. Nevertheless, some of the party's traditional supporters are now on the other side. Says Om Prakash Arora, president, Udham Singh Nagar Vyapar Mandal, "We are fighting for our existence." The mandal's members contribute revenue worth Rs 80 crore annually, nearly half of all collections (Rs 176 crore) from the Uttaranchal region. Their solution is clear: "Either exclude Udham Singh Nagar from Uttaranchal or include the entire Terai region and create a Greater Uttaranchal."
      57. The Akalis apart, the mandal has found backing from Mulayam Singh Yadav's Samajwadi Party (SP). Essentially, the anti-inclusion brigade is a conglomeration of rich farmers and industrialists. In Uttar Pradesh, the Akali Dal is headed by H.S. Cheema, a businessman from Udham Singh Nagar who is considered close to Parkash Singh Badal, Punjab's chief minister.
      58. BJP functionaries in the district accuse Badal of "meddling in Uttar Pradesh's politics". Matters are not quite as simple. Present-day Udham Singh Nagar -- in fact the entire Terai belt -- was once heavily forested and used by the British as hunting grounds. In 1947, recalls Cheema, Govind Ballabh Pant -- Uttar Pradesh's first chief minister -- decided to develop the region agriculturally. Outsiders were invited through newspaper advertisements. Farmers from Punjab, many of them refugees from west Punjab, came in droves. So did east Bengalis, the other victims of Partition. A hardy people, the Punjabi migrants battled disease and beasts to conquer the wild Terai. They lived alongside the Tharus and Buxas -- the autochtons -- and soon surpassed them in prosperity.
      59. The newcomers made good use of the land allotted to them. Farming apart, the district has 3,500 industrial units, big and small. There are six sugar mills and 250 basmati rice mills. In 1995, the then chief minister Mayawati rewarded the Punjabi enclave by carving out the Udham Singh Nagar district from old Nainital. The two districts, however, still share a Lok Sabha constituency. This is why the BJP argues the two cannot belong to separate states.
      60. There are other tensions as well. Subhash Chaturvedi, vice-president of the BJP's Uttaranchal unit, speaks of how the Punjabi farmers expanded their property by capturing forest land and by easing out the Tharus and Buxas. The upshot is that Udham Singh Nagar boasts large farms, ranging from 60 acres to 10,000 acres. Some of them are owned by residents of Punjab. Of course, there is a ceiling of 18 acres to a farm but the law has been effectively ignored.
      61. Among the landholders is Badal's family which, according to local officials, has hurriedly sold off a third of the 120-acre Badal Farm in the Bazpur area. Another huge property is that of Escorts Farms in Kashipur. Authorities detected 1,100 acres in excess of the ceiling but could not acquire the land due to a Supreme Court ruling.
      62. Other big landholders include Rana Bhupendra Singh, former legislator and leader of the sp. He owns property jointly with his brothers. Janakraj Sharma, BJP-nominated chief of the zilla parishad, is also in the game. Apparently, so are filmstars and politicians of Punjab, who are benami owners. Investments to and from Punjab are common in Udham Singh Nagar.
      63. According to Chaturvedi only 3 per cent of the farmers control 27 per cent of the land. In 1946, Tharus owned 2.5 lakh acres of land. Today, they are left with hardly 25,000 acres. No wonder the hill people talk of a "land mafia".
      64. The move to create Uttaranchal threatens this cosy Punjabi nexus. The new state -- built as it will be on the bedrock of hill communities -- can be expected to enforce the ceiling rather strictly. The promised Uttaranchal land law may restrict holdings to only 2.5 acres. The BJP has assured the Akali Dal that the new regulations will not apply to Udham Singh Nagar. In reality, this is a promise only a state government can make -- and the Akalis know that.
      65. Wracked by insecurity, the rich farmers of Udham Singh Nagar have come up with a manifesto for non-inclusion. One of their main fears is that since there is no industry in the hills, the economic burden of 11 hill districts of Uttaranchal will fall upon Udham Singh Nagar. They also feel that, as in the hill state of Himachal Pradesh, the land ceiling may be reduced to 3.40 acres or less, leading to loss of property. The Paharis (hill people) have been demanding a curb on outsiders buying property in the new state, as in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The "resale value of our farms will become zero", say the Punjabis.Besides, local industrialists buy raw materials from the Terai region and the creation of a separate state would hinder such traffic.
      66. Economics apart, there is the problem of culture. Seventy per cent of Udham Singh Nagar's people are Punjabis. Many others are Bengalis. They differ from the Paharis in terms of language, food habits, customs, social mores, everything. The assimilation of the imported plainsmen with the indigenous hill races is far from complete. If the Akalis and their friends can help it, so will be the mingling of Udham Singh Nagar and Uttaranchal.
      67. Welcome to Udhamsingh Nagar District

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      69. Group sites 
         Udhamsingh Nagar Villages
        Ahamad Nagar
        Amiya Wala
        Arvind Nagar
        Bahara Boj
        Bal Khera
        Bandia (CT)
        Bandia (CT) - Ward No.1
        Banna Khera Range
        Bannakhera Sani
        Bans Khera Kalan
        Banskhera Khurd
        Bara Bhuriya
        Bara Khera
        Bari Anjaniya
        Baria Daulat
        Barkhera Rajpoot
        Barkoli Range
        Baruwa Bagh
        Bazpur (MB)
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.1
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.10
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.11
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.12
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.13
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.14
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.15
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.16
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.17
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.18
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.19
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.2
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.20
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.21
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.22
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.23
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.24
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.25
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.3
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.4
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.5
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.6
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.7
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.8
        Bazpur (MB) - Ward No.9
        Berkhera Pandey
        Bhagwantpur Jaspur
        Bhagwantpur Kashipur
        Bhawa Nagla
        Bhjuwa Nagla
        Bhogpur Jaspur
        Bhonaislam Nagar
        Bhoora Gauri
        Bhoora Rani
        Bhura Kishani
        Bhuriya Deshi
        Bhuriya Tharu
        Bigara Bag
        Bindu Khera
        Bitha Akbar
        Boora Nagar
        Chak Jagatpur
        Chandan Nagar
        Charu Beta
        Chaturpur Bagichi
        Dabhaura Aihatmali
        Dam Gara
        Dasho Diyawala
        Dauli Range
        Dev Nagar
        Deyo Dhar
        Dhakia Gulaboo
        Dhakia Kalan
        Dhanauri Patti
        Dhanpur Vijaipur
        Dheemar Khera
        Dhemri Block
        Dhimar Khera
        Dhum Khera
        Dineshpur (NP)
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.1
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.10
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.2
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.3
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.4
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.5
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.6
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.7
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.8
        Dineshpur (NP) - Ward No.9
        Dogori Range
        Dohari Parsa
        Dohari Vakil
        Fajalpur Mahraula
        Gadaria Bang
        Gadarpur (MB)
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.1
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.10
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.11
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.12
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.13
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.14
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.15
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.16
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.17
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.18
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.19
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.2
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.20
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.21
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.22
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.23
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.24
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.25
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.3
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.4
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.5
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.6
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.7
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.8
        Gadarpur (MB) - Ward No.9
        Gandhi Nagar
        Gangapur Chamran
        Gangapur Gosain
        Gangapur Patia
        Gangapur Raqba
        Garhi Husain
        Garhi Indarjit
        Gauri Kala
        Ginni Khera
        Gir Dhyai
        Girdhar Nagar
        Girdhyai Munshi
        Gohar Patiya
        Gopal Nagar
        Gosu Kuman
        Govind Nagar
        Gularia Gobra
        Gur Khura
        Hempur Daya
        Hempur Ismail
        Islam Nagar
        Jagatpur Jaspur
        Jagatpur Patti
        Jaitpur Ghosi
        Jangal Jogither
        Jarasu Pratappur
        Jaspur (MB)
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.1
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.10
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.11
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.12
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.13
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.14
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.15
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.16
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.17
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.18
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.19
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.2
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.20
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.21
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.22
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.23
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.24
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.25
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.3
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.4
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.5
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.6
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.7
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.8
        Jaspur (MB) - Ward No.9
        Jaspur Khurd
        Jaspur Patti Mansha
        Jaspur Patti Netram
        Jaspur Patti Tirmal
        Jaspur Patti Uttam
        Jawahar Nagar
        Jhan Kaieya
        Jhankaiya Range
        Jogither Nagla
        Kachnal Gosain (CT)
        Kachnal Gosain (CT) - Ward No.1
        Kashipur (MB)
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.1
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.10
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.11
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.12
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.13
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.14
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.15
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.16
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.17
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.18
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.19
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.2
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.20
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.21
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.22
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.23
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.24
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.25
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.3
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.4
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.5
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.6
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.7
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.8
        Kashipur (MB) - Ward No.9
        Katila Bonjh
        Kaundha Asaraf
        Kaundha Khera
        Kaundha Ratan
        Kela Khera (NP)
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.1
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.10
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.2
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.3
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.4
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.5
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.6
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.7
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.8
        Kela Khera (NP) - Ward No.9
        Khai Khera
        Khali Mahuwat
        Khamia Block No1
        Khamia Block No2
        Khamia Block No3
        Khamia Block No4
        Khanpur Paschim
        Khanpur Purab
        Kharakpur Devipura
        Khatima (MB)
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.1
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.10
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.11
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.12
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.13
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.14
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.15
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.16
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.17
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.18
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.19
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.2
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.20
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.21
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.22
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.23
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.24
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.25
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.3
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.4
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.5
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.6
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.7
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.8
        Khatima (MB) - Ward No.9
        Khatima Range
        Khera Jariya
        Khera Laxmipur
        Khetal Sanda Mustnagar
        Khetal Sandakham
        Kichha (MB)
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.1
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.10
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.11
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.12
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.13
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.14
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.15
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.16
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.17
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.18
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.19
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.2
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.20
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.21
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.22
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.23
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.24
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.25
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.3
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.4
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.5
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.6
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.7
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.8
        Kichha (MB) - Ward No.9
        Kilpura Range
        Kot Kharra
        Kuan Khera
        Kuin Kheri
        Kuwa Khera
        Kuwan Khera
        Lamba Khera
        Lamba Khera
        Laxmipur Lachhi
        Lohia Head Range
        Madia Hattu
        Maholi Jangal
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP)
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.1
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.10
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.2
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.3
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.4
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.5
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.6
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.7
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.8
        Mahua Dabra Haripura (NP) - Ward No.9
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP)
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP) - Ward No.1
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP) - Ward No.10
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP) - Ward No.2
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP) - Ward No.3
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP) - Ward No.4
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP) - Ward No.5
        Mahua Kheraganj (NP) -
      70. Nadanna
        Nagla (CT)
        Nagla (CT) - Ward No.1
        Nagla Tarai
        Nai Abadi Sipla
        Nandpur Narkatopa
        Naugawa Thago
        Navi Nagar
        Nirmal Nagar
        Niwar Mandi
        Patthar Kui
        Patti Bhajjar
        Pipal Parao Range
        Pipalia Nathu
        Pipalia Pistor
        Prahlad Palsia
        Raikhal Range
        Raipur Khurd
        Raipur Patti Dilla
        Raipur Patti Harji
        Raipur Patti Lekhraj
        Raipur Patti Lokman
        Raj Nagar
        Rajpura No.1
        Rajpura No.2
        Rajpura Rani
        Ramnagar Jaspur
        Ramnagar Kashipur
        Ramnagar Range
        Rampura Sakar
        Rani Nagal
        Rudrapur (MB)
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.1
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.10
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.11
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.12
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.13
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.14
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.15
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.16
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.17
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.18
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.19
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.2
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.20
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.21
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.22
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.23
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.24
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.25
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.3
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.4
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.5
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.6
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.7
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.8
        Rudrapur (MB) - Ward No.9
        Rudrapur Sani
        Sadhu Nagar
        Sand Khera
        Sara Sariya
        Sarada Sagar Jhau Parasa
        Sarovar Nagar
        Sarwar Khera
        Shaktigarh (NP)
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.1
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.10
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.2
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.3
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.4
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.5
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.6
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.7
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.8
        Shaktigarh (NP) - Ward No.9
        Shimala Pistore
        Shivlalpur Amarjhanda
        Shivlalpur Dallu
        Shoka Nagla
        Simla Bahadur
        Sirauli Kalan
        Sirauli Khurd
        Sitarganj (MB)
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.1
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.10
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.11
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.12
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.13
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.14
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.15
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.16
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.17
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.18
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.19
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.2
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.20
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.21
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.22
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.23
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.24
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.25
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.3
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.4
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.5
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.6
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.7
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.8
        Sitarganj (MB) - Ward No.9
        South Jaspur Range
        South Jaula Sal Range
      71. Sripur
        Sripur Bichwa
        Sultanpur (NP)
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.1
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.10
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.2
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.3
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.4
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.5
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.6
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.7
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.8
        Sultanpur (NP) - Ward No.9
        Sunkhari Kalan
        Surendra Nagar
        Tanda Amichand
        Tanda Azam
        Tanda Khem
        Tanda Mehmood
        Tanda Prabhapur
        Tanda Range
        Tanda Ratibhan
        Tegor Nagar
        Thapak Nagla
        Tharan Ganj
        Tharu Tisor
        Turka Gori
        Turka Tisor
        Ujhani Duli
        Ujhani Jangal
        Umaru Kalan
        Umru Khurd
        Uncha Gaon
        Unchi Mahuwar
        Vijai Nagliya
        Vijai Rampura
        Vijay Nagar

      72.  Udhamsingh Nagar District
      73. Total Population : 1,235,614 
        Total literate : 659,165
        Rural : 832,600 Urban : 403,014
        Male : 649,484  Female : 586,130
        Area : 1,989 Acre  
      74. Collectorate
        D.M., U.S.Nagar
        Office : 05944-242344 / Residence : 05944-242345
      75. Altitude : 550 Mtr  
        Clothing Light Cotton,Wollen
        STD Code 05944
        Season Round the year
        Pin Code 263153
      76. Brief about District Udhamsingh Nagar History

      77. Udham Singh Nagar was a portion of district Nainital before the Tarai belt was separated to form the present Udham Singh Nagar on 30/09/1995.
      78. In the past this land which is full of forest land was neglected till 1948 due to difficult climate. Marshy lands, extreme heat, rains which lasted months,a place full of wild animals, diseases and no means of transportation prevented the human race to form a colony here.
      79. According to Historians, hundreds of years ago village Rudrapur was established by a devotee of lord Rudra or by Hindu tribal chief called Rudra, which has passed through phases of development to take the shape of city Rudrapur. The importance of Rudrapur has increased as it is the head quarter of district Udham Singh Nagar. During the reigns of mughal emperor Akbar this land  was handed  over   to  king Rudra     Chandra  in 1588. The king established a permanent millitary camp to free tarai  from day today invasions. Totaly neglected village Rudrapur was filled with new colours and human activities.There is a saying that Rudrapur was named after king Rudra Chandra.
      80. During the reigns of Britishers, Nainital was made a district and in 1864-65 the whole Tarai and Bhawar was put under "Tarai and Bhawar Government Act" which was governed directly by the British crown.
      81. The history of development started with 1948, when the problem of partition brought refugee problem with it.  Immigrant from north west and eastern areas  were reestablished  in 164.2 square km land area under "up nivesh yojana". Personal dwellers were not alllotted land in accordance with crown grant act. The first batch of immigrants came in December 1948.
      82. People from Kashmir,Punjab,Kerala,Eastern UP,Garhwal, Kumaion,Bengal, Hariyana,Rajasthan, Nepal, and Naidu live in groups in this districts.This country is an example of unity in diversity with people from many religions and professions and so is this Tarai, which has its heart at Rudrapur. Due to this Tarai was named MINI HINDUSTAN.
      83. GEOGRAPHY
      84. The district is situated at 28 degree south east, 30 degree north latitude, 78 degree and 81 degree east longitude of Kumaion. Nainital is to the north, Bijnour, Moradabad,Rampur to west,Bareilly, Pilibhit to south and district Champawat is in the east of this district. South east lies the border of Nepal. Reserved forest area lies at the borders of district Nainital and Champawat. The total district is Tarai. Water is available at the depth of 10 to 20 meters. Due to its special geographical structure the district is leader in agriculture in the country.
      85. The district is situated at 28 degree south east, 30 degree north latitude, 78 degree and 81 degree east longitude of Kumaon. Nainital is to the north, Bijnour, Moradabad, Rampur to west, Bareilly, Pilibhit to south and district Champawat is in the east of this district. South east lies the border of Nepal. Reserved forest area lies at the borders of district Nainital and Champawat. The total district is Tarai. Water is available at the depth of 10 to 20 meters. Due to its special geographical structure the district is leader in agriculture in the country.
      86. The area of the district is 3055 square km. It is divided into three parganas, 4 tehsils,2 sub tehsils. There are 669 revenue villages and 15 forest villages. Out of 669 villages 298 villages are in tehsils Kashipur, 159 in tehsil Kichha, 122 villages are in tehsil Sitarganj and 90 in tehsil Khatima. There are 7 blocks for development work. They are Jaspur, Kashipur, Bajpur, Gadarpur, Rudrapur, Sitarganj and Khatima. These 7 blocks are further divided into 27 Nyaya Panchayat and 326 village Panchayat. Urban area is divided into 8 Palika Parishad Jaspur, Kashipur, Bajpur, Gadarpur,. Rudrapur, Kichha, Sitarganj and Khatima and 7 Nagar Panchayat MahuaDabra, Mahuakheraganj, Kelakhera, Dineshpur, Sultanpur Patti and ShaktiGarh.
      87. POPULATION AND DENSITY ,CENSUS:- According to 1991 census population of Udham singh Nagar is 9.15 Lakhs In which 4.91 Lakhs are Male and 4.24 lakhs are Female. Schedule caste population is 1.21 lakhs and schedule tribe population is .86 lakhs.According to 1991 census total area of Udham Singh Nagar is 1.12 percent of U.P and .65 percent people of the total of U.P. reside here. Population density of U.P is 473 per square kilometer and population density of this district is 299 per square kilometer. In comparison with Uttaranchal 5.75 percent area is of Udham Singh Nagar. Population density of uttaranchal is 132 per square kilometer and this district has 299 per sqaure kilometer. 9.8 percent schedule caste and 40.7 % schedule tribe of Uttaranchal reside in Udham Singh Nagar. According to the census of 1991, 39.3 percent are literate. In literate persons 66.7 % are male and 33.3 % are female. According to the census of the 1991 the number of residential houses in the district is 148497 in which 100089 are in rural area and 48408 are in urban area. According to the 1991 census 153484 families live here . 102444 families are in rural area and 51040 are in urban area.

      88. Bleeding Rainbow
      90. Troubled Galaxy Destroyed dreams: Chapter Ten
      91. Palash Biswas
      93. Rainbow
      94. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      97. Rainbows are optical and meteorological phenomena that cause a spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines onto droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere. They take the form of a multicoloured arc, with red on the outer part of the arch and violet on the inner section of the arch. More rarely, a secondary rainbow is seen, which is a second, fainter arc, outside the primary arc, with colours in the opposite order, that is, with violet on the outside and red on the inside.
      99. A rainbow spans a continuous spectrum of colours. Traditionally, however, the sequence is quantised. The most commonly cited and remembered sequence, in English, is Newton's sevenfold red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. "Roy G. Biv" and "Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain" are popular mnemonics.
      100. Rainbows can be caused by other forms of water than rain, including mist, spray, dew, fog, and ice. Moreover, rainbows can have shapes other than a bow (arc), including stripes, circles, or even flames. (See circumhorizontal arc).
      102. Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind a person at a low altitude angle (on the ground). The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half of the sky is still dark with draining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the Sun. The result is a luminous rainbow that contrasts with the darkened background.
      103. The rainbow effect is also commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. Rainbow fringes can sometimes be seen at the edges of backlit clouds[1] and as vertical bands in distant rain or virga. The effect can also be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. Rarely, a moonbow, lunar rainbow or night-time rainbow, can be seen on strongly moonlit nights. As human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are often perceived to be white.[1]
      104. You can create your own rainbow by facing 180 degrees from the sun and spraying mist from a garden hose in front of you in a circular motion, outlining a 360 degree "rainbow".
      105. It is difficult to photograph the complete arc of a rainbow, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required, whilst most photographers are only likely to have a 28 mm wide-angle lens. From an aeroplane, one has the opportunity to see the whole circle of the rainbow, with the plane's shadow in the centre. This phenomenon can be confused with the glory, but a glory is usually much smaller, covering only 5°–20°.
      109. When I Look At The Rainbow

          Lord when I look at the Rainbow you have placed in sky so
        blue, it reminds me that all your promises are true
        Your Rainbow reminds me that those who believe on you
        are few, yet you have called us your little Ewe
        Lord when I look at the Rainbow I see it's hue, it reminds
        me that your love for us true
        Your Rainbow in sky so blue, reminds me to keep praying
        Lord when I look at the Rainbow it reminds me of your
        promise to all of your creatures some of whom are of
        different features
        Your Rainbow and it's many colors reminds me that it
        represents some whom are called colored
        Lord when I look at your Rainbow and see how it's colors
        are bright, it reminds me to do what is right
        Your Rainbow I have never seen at night, this reminds me
        to stay in the light
        Lord when I look at your Rainbow it reminds me of your grief
        because of our unbelief
        Your Rainbow have no pot of gold, but your wonderful story
        of love it has told
        Lord when I Look at your Rainbow it reminds that you
        promised to never again destroy the World with a flood
        Your Rainbow to me is a sign of your love it represents
        your Son's life Blood
      110. Vincent G. Mead

        And yet another dream......

          Feel like dancing under a rainbow, feel like singing happy
        songs, but my rainbow, no my rainbow, wont shine for me.
        Feel like going to the ocean, building castle in the sand..
        but my rainbow, my rainbow, wont shine for me.


          When I first came to the city
        the rainbow paint the sky
        It's in a little bus station
        where I heard the rainbow song
        a beautiful mother singing to her little three sons
        And then rainbow shows day after day
        with God telling me everything's gonna be so right
        Oh, beautiful rainbow, beautiful sign
        just letting people feel right
      112. It is in this rainbow season
        that love fills friends' hearts
        some to express, some to hide
        some to broadcast, some are shy
        With the rainbow in the sky
        You shouldn't hide and you shouldn't be shy
        Nobody's gonna laugh at your lovely lines
        Oh, beautiful rainbow, beautiful sign
        Forever having her by my side
      113. Xin Wang


      114. I raised the elbow
        I have seen the rainbow
        It is the celebration of sky
        My heart vibrates with joy
        Rainbow happens on special moment
        Busy life misses it in the speed movement
        Waiting for rainbow,
        In the raindrops Meadow,
        Sky is not showing grace
        Rainbow is not in trace
      115. Rainbow with seven colors,
        Appears to my beloved,
        stays somewhere,
        melts in the infinite sky!
        Heart felts it’s gay
        Rainbow is not mirage
        It leaves image in my soul!
      116. Mula Veereswara Rao

      117. Rainbows bleed!
      118. Just you should have the vision. Not only the Vision, you must have a heart to feel and a mind to understand.
      119. For us, the persecuted Untouchables, black people and all underclasses, the refugees, the immigrants and the victims of Holocaust, Partition, Natural and man made hazards, Wars and civil Wars , the rainbows have to bleed!
      120. We, the defenders of Nature and Natural resources, have to be killed and uprooted. this has been the Ultimate agenda of the Ruling Class and Hegemony all the time and Everywhere!
      121. It happened in Americas while Columbus invented the new world for Colonisation. It was repeated as Vasco De Gama reached India. It was the same story in Africa, Australia and Neuzealand.
      122. Europe experienced the Bloodshed with the introduction of industrial revolution followed by Hundred Years War, the CRUSED!
      123. A Tale of Two Cities written by Charles Dickens and Les Miserables by Victor Hugo consists of enough Bloodshed.
      124. USA also had to cross the rivers of blood in the struggle of Independence! USA had to suffer the tragedies involving civil War. Rise of  Barrack Obama is the climax of all those tragedies.
      125. China and Korea suffered Japanese Aggression!
      126. Russia faced Napoleon and thus, Leo Tolstoy wrote the classic, War and Peace! USSR was born in bloodshed. USSR was the ultimate demise in Bloodshed.
      127. Vietnam bore the burn of War as Hiroshima and Nagasaki witnessed first atomic Disaster heralding an Age of Troubled galaxy!
      128. We witness Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Palestine and the middle east have never seen any Rainbow without the rain of Blood!
      129. Thus, the Rainbows are bleeding for us worldwide. We bear the heritage and legacy of Holocaust as the War criminals consist of the Galaxy ruling Class!
      130. Memories of Another Day continue and continue!
      131. I have to live with so many families losing dearest and nearest ones in partition. Families had its members stranded in East Pakistan. Sometimes the Old Men and Helpless ladies would come to me and request to write a Post card for them addressed somewhere in East Bengal.
      132. I learnt this with personal tragedies.
      133. In 1960, my father Pulin Babu organised an all India Refugee Conference in Dineshpur. Invitees included SM Bannerjee, MP kanpur, Renuka chakrabarti and Samar Mukherjee , MPs from West Bengal and other dignitaries. Some posters printed for the event were stocked on the partition wall in our Uttar Gahr, the North House. I found them later. i don`t remember anything particular about that conference. Nainital based Bengali Refugees demonstrated in Rudrapur in 1956 under the banner of Terai Udvastu committee. Pulin Babu was the general secretary. Radhakanta Roy, a Paundra Kshatriya from Khulna and resettled in Sunderpur Refugee colony in Dineshpur Area had been the President. Haripada Biswas was another prominent leader who hailed from Khulna and was resettled in Laxmipur Colony. Kumud Ranjan Mallick from Panchananpur, Shadanand Shikdar from Khanpur, Prafulla saha from Udainagar, kalipada Mandal from Kalinagar, Haren Roy from Chandan Nagar, Haren Sarkar from Makrand pur, Basudeb Mandal from Pipulia, Phuljhuri Mandal from Chandayan, Sukhlal Mandal from Dinesh Pur, Shishubar Roy from Vijaya Nagar, Meghnad Roy from Shibpur, Birinchi Pada Mandal from Durgapur, Deben Biswas from Amrita Nagar, Prafulla Manjhi from Haridaspur, Harimohan from Anand Khera were the prominent leaders of the Bengali refugees at that time.

      134. I remember well that all the Bengali MPs and MLAs skipped Dinseh Pur and Shaktifarm with refugee colonies countrywide. Only in seventies, while CPIM launched Marichjhanpi Movement, leaders from West Bengal visited Dandakaranya. Uttaranchal saw the West Bengal based comrades only after the death of my Father. In 2001, Newly Uttaranchal BJP Government led by Nityanand Swami, made domicile certificates compulsory for jobs in the state. Bengalies were denied the domicile certificates. All the Bengali Refugees settled in Terai were branded as Bangladeshi. The Bengalies and the Sikhs settled in Terai in the same time period in early fifties and they were responsible for deforestation and cultivation in Terai. But the Sikhs were never questioned. The Bengalies launched an agitation once again after 1956. this time, they had to defend their citizenship. All communities residing in Terai, the media and all political parties except BJP, stood united rock solid to support this agitation.
      135. We contacted the West Bengal Government, Political parties, Civil Society and Media. We formed an organisation, SAHMARMI. For the first time, West Bengal supported the Dalit Refugees. Later  it turned out to be an exercise to expand the CPIM base in North India with refugee Vote Bank. CPIM launched a false land movement led by Brinda karat in Terai only to divide the Bengalies settled there.MPs and Party leaders including Biman Basu visited our area for the first time while they had already cooperated to pass the Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2003. Cpim fielded no less than forteen candidates in the next assembly elections!
      136. ND Tiwari was the only leader who always supported the Bengali refugees in Terai. He visited Bengali resettlement in 1954 for the first time. He befriended with all the refugees. he knew all the Old Men and the Youth by name in every colony.
      137. In 1960, only ND Tiwari ensured the suceess of the first All India Refugee Conference in Dineshpur.
      138. I was to young to join the conference. But I would never forget the occassion. My father was involved in Refugee Mobilisation. Meanwhile, he visited the riot torn Assam. he returned and organised the conference having sent his younger brother, Chhoto kaka to Assam.
      139. My two sisters died without any medical help during those hectic days.
      140. I remember that day. It was a dark, humid day in Terai. We saw no Rainbow in the sky as it did not rain. The sky was unclear and the Himalays were not visible. The Himalays just disappeared from the Horizon.
      141. We were all alone, isolated like a lonely Island.
      142. Though our Village people were there. But what help could they offer? They tried their best to locate Pulin Babu and failed.
      143. Tuni was younger than me. the other girl was an infant and was still unnamed. They both succumbed in the Evening and all the darkness of this Galaxy involved us. I saw my Jetah Moshai, the Eldest uncle weeping. Thamma, Pisisma, Jethima and Kakima were crying. Didi, Meera was also crying. All the women in the neighbourhood were crying.
      144. But I was not crying. I do not know how I realised in those days of innocense that any amount of crying is not going to help us anyway.
      145. I just noted and witness the Event of Tragedy.
      146. I was shocked.
      147. But I was strong enough to face the Ultimate truth.
      148. It was my Making. I had to change this scenerio!
      149. Tragedies and Holocaust never cease. We have to change the system and circumstances causing all these tragedies and Holocausts.
      150. Believe me, or not, I saw the rainbow bleedin all the time and always I believed that we could Change! It has to be changed!
      151. This is the ultimate lesson I got with my first solid memory as a child.
      152. And just read this letter which I wrote in 2007. It is addressed to a friend , Dr PG Biswas, a Professor in GB Pant University Pant Nagar.
      153. The Terai in Nainital was a home for epidemics and wild life. We changed it.
      154. We have to change the galaxy someday!

      155. Biswas Da (PG Biswas, Pantnagar University, Namaskar.
        I was waiting for your call/mail. My mobile 09903717833 as well as land phone had been out of order for few days. May be you have tried. I tried to call you yesterday thrice and failed to contact. I am interested to know the progress of your work. I also wait for the feedback from all the friends and orgs involved in Dalit mobilisation and anti imperialism Black Untouchable Resistance!
        Meanwhile, BAMCEF invited me to address its National conference in Patna. I have to speak on Nationality problem , Refugee problem and citizenship amendment act, Dalit Panchayat and south India and non Hindu periphery. I have to speak on 25th December.I have nothing against the other faction of Bamcef which is holding its conference in New Delhi. I was also proposed to address that conference. Since they do not treat our case, the plight of Dalit Bengali Refugees and Nationality problems, non Hindu periphera as burning issues inescapable and skip it- I decided for not going there. But I believe broader unity of all subaltern, SC, ST, OBC and Minority unity to annihilate this Hindu, Zionist, White Post Modern Manusmriti Corporate Manusmriti Imperialism!
      156. On the other hand , our family faced a great tragedy as my cousin sister`s MeeraDee`s eldest Son Shekhar who belong to Suraj Farm, expired in a road accident near Bijnore.The body is waited to reach there from New Delhi AAIMS, where a brain surgery was done to save him as last bid. Whole family is there. I had to go.But I can not.Shekhar had been eldest amongst all our children. While my father was leading Dhimri Block Insurrection in 1958 or led refuges countrywide, we, Meeradi and me had been the only children in the joint family. My uncles were liable to see the family. Father was dedicated to the society. Later, after the riots of sixties my late uncle Dr Sudhir Kumar Biswas was also sent to Assam refugee areas to attend their health needs. Meeradi looked after me. As the ladies in the family my aunts and mother used to be always busy to attend infinite needy crisis struck daily guests and home management.
        Shekhar was borne at our place and I clearly visualise the event. he had been such a nice boy always present to help in crisis. Thanks God, My father, mother, Uncles and aunts - no one survive to face the tragedy. My sister is an excellent old lady and her Husband had been a teacher. I am concerned for the poor old couple!
        My wife Sabita had undergone open heart surgery in 1995 and we have got doctors appointments.
        Moreover, it is a rare opportunity to address the BAMCEF Conference as no other political or non political org supports us.
        You know the family legacy and liability. It is really a very tough decision to make. I inherit the legacy of struggle from my father. And perhaps you should know that two of my sisters expired without medical care while he was engaged in mass mobilisation.
        I am just following my father`s example. My wife is weeping all these days. As last week my bosome college life friend Pawan Rakesh also lost his only son dearest gaurab, only 23 yrs old in a road accident in Dehradoon where he studied.
        It is a very tough time.
        but I have to be aware of my surroundings. I have to take care of my enslaved communities unguarded from civil and human rights violations. My family in Naninital and relatives countrywide would consider me heartless as my family considered my father once upon a time in 1960.
        In these circumstances I want your support to convince my friends there that I have not any other option. i will be in Naninital in January, i hope.
        I request everyone belonging to Bahujan communities to attend the BAMCEF Conference in Patna beginning from 25th December. I hope that our friends from Uttaranchal and UP will be there. It is much more important as the conference is being held in Bihar where Dalit Bengali refugees are isolated rest of the community.
        We have to unify all the Islands!
        Palash Biswas
        15 December,2007

      157. Nirmal. Nirmal joshi, a friend , a comrade is no more. He died on 24 October,2007. He was sick for long time. My sweet home Nainital is situated perhaps in another galaxy. We have so many E-Groups, mobiles and net, but we did not know the news. I had to attend the birthday party of Golu, the lovely small boy , my friend film director Rajiv Kumar`s son last Sunday. We met in south kolkata in his new flat. Director Joshy Joseph and a bunch of young filmmakers and technitians were present. We discussed nandigram, Singur, Bangladesh, Refugee movement, my father, globalisation and American corporate Imperialism. But we could not discuss on our home Nainital or Uttrakhand. We have no news, no feedback, no phone call from Nainital. No body informed us that Nirmal is not there to participate in any hot debate on our favourite topics as he used to do in seventies during our college days, during emergency and Chipko Andolan, during Nasha nahee Rozgar do. He won`t be there to enact again , `Thank You Mr Glad’.
        On monday only, I recieved a copy of Nainital samachar and got the news. I informed rajiv. We were stunned that a friend born in 1956 went away for ever so silently. Nirmal was never silent. We shared a single quilt in Girda`s room with Girda, Mohan, Prim, Pushpa and Nirmal. We shared single cup of tea during rehearsals of Yugmanch. We shared a bottle of wine in chilly night in Nainital.Everyone had to have a chuski. We discussed the world strolling on Mal road beside the splendid Naini Lake in winter nights amid snowfall. We discussed Marx and Mao, Gandhi and Lohia, Classics written worldwide and the contemporary world. We discussed our dreams. We discussed every moment a better Uttarakhand , a better India and a better world.
        What Uttarakhand we have got! What a world is this!
      158. During emergency, we were students in degree classes in Nainital.   Mohan alias Kapilesh Bhoj and me went to Mathura and Kota during winter vacation to attend writers` secret meetings. We used to have our study circles on Snow Peak or Tiffin Top. Nainital samchar was yet to publish. In DSB college we had Mahendra Singh Pal, the students` Union President, Raja Bahuguna, Sher Singh Naulia, Bhagirath Lal, the most versatile actor Zahoor Alam, Suresh Arya, Kashi Singh Airy and many more who represent Uttarakhand assembly nowadays.Pradip Tamta, now a Congress MLA , was our ideological leader.He was most aggressive. Mohan and me were considered intellectuals in the group as we used to write regularly.At that time we were room partners in Bengal Hotel Nainital as we left the house of Tara Chandra Tripathi, our guide and teacher.

        We knew Girda as a poet and a very good director actor.We had no interaction with Rajiv Lochan sah or Shekhar Pathak at that time. DD Pant was our Vice chacellor who launched Uttarakhand Kranti Dal later and kash emerged the leader.
      159. Tamta came to our room and introduced Nirmal, an MA student in political science.His father was the head clerk in our DSB college and we had serious doubts about Nirmal`s commitment. Very soon he proved to be more committed. We had secret meetings in Kashipur, Gularbhoj and Dineshpur in Terai. We had regular study circles. We were fighting against emergency. Raja Bahuguna joined us at this point. He shifted to new founded Uttaraghand Sangharsh Vahini with us from Janata Dal. Earlier he had been Nainital district Youth Congress President. He left Congress during May, 1977 elections.
      160. During Chipko movement and just after Nainital Club Fire, the entire group was together with Almora friends Vipin Tripathi, shamsher Singh Bisht and chandra Sekhar Bhatt, PC Tiwari and many more. Nirmal was most active among us.Nainital Samachar, Nainital, Ramje Inter College Almora, Someshwar, Dwarahat, Tehri, Uttarkashi and the total Uttarakhan along with Terai became our centres of activity. We often were involved in heated discussion. Niramal, Girda, Vipin Chacha and Me were the most vocal. Harish Pant, Zahoor Alam, Shamsher, Rajiv Lochan, Pawan Rakesh, Shekhar Pathak, dr Ajay Rawat and Dr Chandresh Shastri were very logical. We always dominated.
      161.  We decided the layout and content of Nainital Samachar and the editorial team had to surrender. Outsiders like Naveen Joshi from Lucknow were the regular visitors. Pankaj Bisht, Biren Dangwal, kunwar Prasoon, Sundar Lal Bahuguna, Jawaqhar Lal kaul, Anand Swaroop Verma, Himanshu Joshi, Diva Bhatt and others interrupted us sometimes.
          Uma Bahtt was married to Shekhar and she became the most silent and active worker. She played the host role for us the anarchists. We danced together on the occassion of Rajiv`s marriage. We may not forget all those days. Rajiv Kumar came from Pantnagar and became a part of us. We played dramas by Badal Sarkar and the director was BB karanth. We played Trishanku with BM shah.

        During Thank You Mr Glad our team was attacked in Ramje college  by RSS goons. Nirmal was thrashed. He played the Patnaik role in the play. He was not an actor as Zahoor and our Yugmanch friends were. But he acted very well. The wife of Patnaik was enacted by Pushpa. Nirmal`s father was not ready to  agree their marriage as Nirmal was a Kumauni Brahmin and Pushpa , a Thakur titled Bisht. Bua Pushpa and Nirmal passed those challanges very well. both of them were established lawyers in Nainital Highcourt.
        Me and Savita went to Nainital just after our marraige. We met Nirmal and Pushpa for the last time then in May, 1983.
        Nirmal changed a lot. He was drinking too muich and was availabl only in the Boat club. thus, I could not meet him for years. same was the case with friends in Nainital. We listened that Nirmal is changing once again. he is prepared to play a second innings in the mass movement.
      162. Person's nexus of statuses, defines only a selection of his rights, duties, and capacities and endangers only one sector of his total social identity....
      163. The family is a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood, or adoption; constituting a single household, interacting and inter-communicating...A Joint family is a group of people who generally live under one roof, who eat food cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common.
      164. Tribe, caste, sect and class are the various categories of social stratification found in India. A tribe is a collection of families or groups of families.
      165. 330 kms northeast of  New Delhi in the Kumaon Himalayas lies the Nainital Lake Valley (29° 22' 60N and 79° 27' 0E) and adjacent hill resorts. The Nainital area (1938m) lies in the central Himalayas and is a vantage point to view the great Nanda Devi massif.  The Pangot area (1900m) lies 15 kilometers past Nainital and is on the road to Vinayak past Kilbury.
        The area and its surrounding hills has a record of 200+ Himalayan bird species.

        Mixed forests dominated by thick ban-oak, pine and rhododendron cover most of the area and surrounding hills. A large part of the landscape is characterized by dense vegetation. Numerous perennial creeks and streams crisscross the area.
      166.  The terai & bhabhar belt  presents the climate of the plains while the deep valleys with elevation upto 1000 Mts. play host to flora and fauna typical  of hills as well as plains. The middle Himalayan ranges to 2000 Mts and the sub alpine region upto 2500 Mts complete the eco-zones.

      167. Indian farmers in a district in Uttar Pradesh, who had given up traditional rice varieties for high yielding varieties (HYVs) during the Green Revolution, found themselves in difficulty as the HYVs ran into problems. These farmers were saved by the foresight of one farmer who had continued growing traditional varieties which are cheaper to cultivate and superior to the HYVs in disease and pest resistance, climate tolerance, yield, flavour and market price.
      168. While several farmers had started growing the Pant-4 HYV (and some other HYVs) recommended to them, the very high demands of irrigation as well as chemical fertilisers for this rice HYV were proving a problem for them. This problem was particularly acute in this drought year. As a result of heavy exploitation of water, nearly half of the artesian wells (the most important sources of irrigation in the terai) had dried up. In the remaining wells too the pressure had reduced considerably.
      169. Even in rivers the water level declined steeply. The water level in the Haripura dam on Bhakhra river and the Bore dam on Bore river has receded so much that the farmers could not seek any solace from these structures.
      170. A large number of eucalyptus trees planted here in recent years have also contributed to lowering the water-table. Most of these trees have been planted on fields bunds. Villagers say that a row of this tree sucks up to a distance of five metres in the field.
      171. Earlier the main feature of this area had been its abundance of ground-water. But the destruction of natural forests in the hills above as well as in the plains of the terai reduced this to a large extent. At the same time, exploitation of the ground-water started on a truly massive scale by not only bringing much more land under cultivation but also growing highly water-intensive HYVs, especially the new exotic strains of paddy, on this land. The water-table went down drastically, at some places as low as 50 feet, making it necessary to dig tubewells to satiate the needs of the HYVs and the new cropping pattern.
      172. Initially, when water abundance had made this a particularly good land for growing rice HYVs, the traditional paddy varieties had been given up by most farmers. However, one far-sighted farmer, Inder Singh continued to grow and preserve several diverse traditional varieties having different properties with respect to disease and pest susceptibility, climate tolerance, yield, flavour, aroma, etc. Among these he noticed one particular variety which had good qualities of flavour as well as high yield.
      173. As the water level receded and the HYVs ran into some other problems as well, some farmers started yearning for traditional seeds and happily they could get these from Inder Singh. His best variety was named Indarasan - as a tribute to his farsightedness in preserving and improving it. Owing to high productivity and low costs of cultivation (in terms of fertilisers and water), this variety was popular among farmers. The small farmers least capable of coping with the high cost of HYVs especially found Indarasan a very useful variety. In just about six to seven years nearly half of the land was covered by Indarasan, and even some big farmers adopted this variety.
      174. During the recent drought season, Indarasan coped much better than Pant-4, the most widely grown variety here among the various paddy HYVs. In fact the yield of Indarasan paddy this year has gone up, reaching a peak of 32 quintals per acre from the earlier average of 25 quintals per acre. On the other hand Pant-4 has stagnated at 20 quintals per acre, and where irrigation could not be arranged, this HYV has been destroyed almost entirely.
      175. What is more, the Indarasan variety is fetching a better price on the market - its rate of Rs.208 per quintal in Gandarpur mandi (market) compares very favourably with the Rs.175 per quintal for Pant-4.
      176. There is a big rush among farmers to get the Indarasan seed for next year's crop.
      177. Farmers who have been cultivating Indarasan for some time are satisfied that it has not been susceptible to diseases and they compare this to the high susceptibility of the so-called HYVs.
      178. The Indarasan variety also has good flavour and scent, and its threshing is much easier. In comparison the threshing of Pant-4 requires much more effort. In addition the proportion of unbroken grains is higher in Indarasan.
      179. In terms of flavour Indarasan is vying with popular types of rice like Basmati and Hansraj for a place of honour. It also yields more dry fodder for cattle compared to the dwarf HYVs, and even in quality Indarasan's fodder has been found relatively better (generally paddy fodder is considered a poor quality fodder, to be used only in case of extreme need).
      180. Unfortunately some scientists who identify their own work only with the popularisation of exotic HYVs are feeling uneasy about this re-discovery of farmers, instead of learning from the field-situation and re-orienting their research effort accordingly.
      181. This better performance of a traditional variety grown at a lower cost, particularly in a drought year, is especially significant since it took place in the Nainital terai region, considered a birth-place of the Green Revolution in India.
      183. Nainital is referred to in the ‘Manas Khand’ of the ‘Skanda Purana’ as the Tri-Rishi-Sarovar, the lake of the three sages, Atri, Pulastya and Pulaha who were reputed to have arrived here on penitential pilgrimage and finding no water to quench their thirst dug a hole and siphoned water into it from Mansarovar the sacred lake in Tibet.
      184. The second important mythological reference to Nainital is as one of 64 ‘Shakti Peeths’. These centres were created wherever parts of charred body of Sati fell, when Lord Shiva was carrying around her corpse in grief. It is said that the left eye (Nain) of Sati fell here and this gave rise to patron deity of town Nainital. It is said that the lake is formed in the emerald eye shape. Naina Devi temple is located at the northern end of the lake. Thus name of Nainital derivated from Naina and the tal (Lake).
      185. Before creation of independent District Nainital on October 13, 1891, it was part of Kumaon Sessions Division vide Notification No.1314/VI-48-1914 dated 26th March, 1914 Mr.Wyndham, I.C.S. was appointed as first Commissioner of Kumaon Division, who also worked as Sessions Judge for this Division. At that time, Almora, Garhwal, Nainital and Pilibhit were placed under this Sessions Division. Later on, Pilibhit was removed from Kumaon Sessions Division.
      186. Under the treaty of Sigauli in 1816, Nepal formally ceded the territory of Uttarakhand, and certain other areas to the East India Company. A province of Kumaon was formed consisting of the erstwhile districts of Almora, Garhwal and Nainital. Garhwal was separated from Kumaon under the Act X of 1838 and Terai Districts were created. Thus, the province of Kumaon included the districts of Kumaon, Garhwal and Terai came in existence. But, on 13th October, 1891, Nainital district was formed by combining the Tarai and Bhabar area with certain hill patties which were formerly included in what was known as Kumaon District which thereafter came to be known as Almora. The three Districts of Almora, Nainital and Garhwal constituted the Kumaon Division. On the merger of the erstwhile Tehri State in 1949, Tehri District was also added to this Division.
      187. On the absorption of Kumaon with the rest of British India, the then Governor-General appointed Hon’ble E.Gardner to assume the office and title of Commissioner for the affairs of Kumaon and Agent to the Governor-General on 3rd May, 1815, and Mr. G.W.Traill as his Assistant. But as the former mostly remained busy with his military and political duties in Nepal, the burden of administration fell on his Assistant, Mr.Traill.
      188. The administrative history of Kumaon Division in the words of Whalley in his "Law of Non-Regulation-Provinces" divides itself into three periods "Kumaon under Traill; Kumaon under Batten and Kumaon under Ramsay". The regime in the first period was essentially paternal, despotic and personal. It resisted the centralizing tendency which the policy of the Government had developed. It, though arbitrary was  just wise and progressive administration. Mr.Traill’s administration lasted from 1815 to 1835.
      189. "Mr. Batten ruled Kumaon during 1836-56, but the early stages of his rule were marked by an influx of codes and rules and a predominance of official supervision which gradually subsided as he gained influence position and experience. Thus, the second period glided insensibly, into the third period which nevertheless has a distinctive character of its own. In Sir Henry Ramsay’s administration we see the two currents blended. The personal sway and unhampered autocracy of the first era, combining with it the orderly procedure and observance of fixed rules and principles, was the chief feature of the second."
      190. It may be stated that in the earliest times administration of justice, civil or criminal was hardly any problem to the British Government. From 1st of January, 1820 to 31st December, 1821 the total number of criminals confined in Jail amounted to sixty five out of whom 4 had been convicted of murder, 3 for thefts above Rs.50 and the rest for petty thefts, assaults, defamation, forgery, etc. In the words of Traill himself in his Statistical Sketch of Kumaon, "affrays of a serious nature are of rare occurrence and even petty assaults are most infrequent…..Applications to court on the subject of caste are numerous; these are invariably referred to the Pandit of the Court, whose decree delivered to the party concerned is conclusive …. In civil judicature the simple forms of the preceding Government have been generally retained. The petition originating the suit is required to be written on an eight-anna stamp but no institution or other fees are levied. A notice in the form of an ittalanama is then issued when process is served by the plaintiff in three cases out of four produces a compromise between the parties. In case the compromise is not affected it is returned by the plaintiff to the court and the defendant was summoned. The parties then plead their cause in person and in case the facts are disputed on either side, evidence is called for. Oaths are never administered except in particular cases and at the express desire of either party. Suits for division of property or settlement of accounts are commonly referred to arbitrators selected by the parties. In the matter of execution of decrees, the established forms were followed by the leniency of native creditors renders imprisonment and sales in satisfaction of decrees uncommon… At that time only one court (Commissioner’s Court) exists in the province for trial of civil cases."
      191. Untramelled by any laws, rules and regulations Mr. Traill made his own arrangements for administration of Civil and Criminal justice. He was not only the head of the civil administration but the sole legislator and dispenser of civil justice. He had framed his own rules of procedure for presentation of plaints on an eight-anna stamp irrespective of the valuation of the claim on presentation of which the plaintiff was required to serve notice on the defendant himself. In seventy-five percent of cases the claims were compromised. In other cases the parties were first examined where after their witnesses, if any, were examined, but oath was generally not administered.
      192. There were no lawyers and no one was permitted to act as an agent of the contending parties and the maximum duration of a suit was twelve days. Incidentally, it may be stated that Mr. Traill also conducted the first ‘Nazarandazi’ survey of Kumaon in Samvat 1880 i.e., 1818 A.D. (Commonly known as "Sal assi") which still continues to form the basic document for determining village boundaries. There was no actual survey, but Mr. Traill rationally allotted and amidst the different villages by reference to natural or prominent features existing on the northern, southern, eastern and western boundaries of each village. Actual survey operations in most of the areas of Kumaon were undertaken for the first time by Mr. Beckett in 1856.
      193. According to Walton’s Gazetteer for the District of Almora first Munsif was appointed in 1829 and seven Kanungos were invested with the title and powers of Munsif and title of Sadar Amin was conferred on Court Pandit. These officers continued to exercise powers of Civil Judges till 1838. After these offices were abolished, the Act X of 1838 was enforced under which the districts of Kumaon and Garhwal each had one Senior Assistant, one Sadar Amin and one Munsiff under Sadar Dewani Adalat. In civil administration Kumaon Province was placed under the jurisdiction of Sadar Dewani Adalat in 1838 and remained subject to its jurisdiction till 1864. The Assam Rules with certain modifications were adopted for the administration of civil and criminal justice in 1839. These rules were superseded in 1863 by a set of Civil and Revenue Rules known as Jhansi Rules, statutory authority was given to these rules by section 2 of the Non-Regulation District Act (Central Act XXIV of 1864). Under section 4 of the said Act, Civil Procedure Code was also made applicable. Rules for service of processes were based on the lines laid down by Mr. Traill.
      194. Thereafter, a new set of rules under notification No.628/VII-569-B dated 27th June, 1894 were promulgated under which the Commissioner was constituted as the High Court of Kumaon except in the cases under Succession Act, in respect of which he acted as a District Judge and an appeal would lie to the High Court of Allahabad against his decision. The other revenue officers i.e. Assistant Collectors were invested with the powers to decide civil cases with varying extent of jurisdiction. Under Rule 17 the Government had however been vested with power to make reference to the High Court of Allahabad against the decision of the Commissioner. Thereafter, the Commissioner sitting as the High Court of Kumaon would decide the cases in accordance with the opinion of the High Court.
      195. The Commissioner of Kumaon, however, continued to exercise the powers of a High Court until the enforcement of Notification No.543/VII-421 dated 1st April, 1926 (Published at page 57 of the Rules and orders relating to Kumaon). A District Judge was appointed to exercise jurisdiction over Pilibhit and the three districts Almora, Garhwal and Nainital constituting the Kumaon Division. Later on Pilibhit was separated from Kumaon judgeship. The Deputy Commissioners of the three districts were invested with the powers of a subordinate judge and Assistant Collectors who were revenue officers were empowered to try civil suits up to a valuation of rupees five thousand.
      196. The arrangement of investing revenue officers with the powers of Civil Judges and Munsiffs did not work satisfactorily. After 1926 the District Judge of Kumaon became the Appellate Court in respect of civil case decided by them. These revenue officers were not very much conversant with civil laws. Their judgments were subjected to severe criticism at the hands of the District Judge. Consequently they were hesitant to try civil cases which had been thrust upon them by virtue of their office as Assistant Collectors. This led to an appalling state of affairs in the accumulation of arrears in the disposal of civil cases. Sir Iqbal Ahmad the then Chief Justice drew the attention of the Government to this fact. In 1942 the U.P. Government agreed to post one judicial officer at Almora with powers of an Assistant Collector of first class, who by virtue of his office became a Civil Judge with jurisdiction to try civil suits up to a valuation of Rs.5,000/-.
      197. This experiment proved very successful. Consequently in 1947 the Government appointed a number of young and promising lawyers as Revenue Officers exclusively to try and dispose of civil cases. In 1952 the High Court appointed its own Munsiffs and Civil Judges under Bengal and Assam Civil Courts Act.
      198. After the merger of the erstwhile Tehri State one more Civil and Sessions Judges were posted to Kumaon under the District and Sessions Judge. On account of administrative convenience his headquarters was fixed at Tehri. The District and Sessions Judge of Kumaon was also a Civil Judge of Kumaon and as such he tried and disposed of original suits of higher valuation. An Additional Civil and Sessions Judge was also appointed to assist him whenever the workload increased.
      199. As regards administration of criminal justice, criminal jurisdiction was conferred on Kumaon officers in July 1817 under Regulation X of 1817 except in certain serious offences like murder, robbery, treason etc. for the trial of which a Commissioner had to be specifically appointed by the Governor-General in Council. After recording evidence in the case, the Commissioner used to submit his report to the Nizamat Adalat which passed the final sentence. It seldom became necessary to appoint a Commissioner under this provision. This Regulation was subsequently repealed by Act X of 1838, as a result of which criminal courts in Kumaon came directly under the control of Nizamat Adalat. Rules were made under the Act for administration of criminal justice which was later on superseded by the Criminal Procedure Code under which the Commissioner of Kumaon was appointed as the Sessions Judge.
      201. Shukla RP, Nanda N, Pandey AC, Kohli VK, Joshi H, Subbarao SK.
        Malaria Research Centre (Field Station), Haldwani, India.
      202. A study on the bionomics of Anopheles fluviatilis sensu lato was carried out in two physiographic regions, viz. Bhabar and Terai of District Nainital, Uttar Pradesh. In both areas, An. fluviatilis was found resting indoors predominantly in cattlesheds. Cytological examination of An. fluviatilis revealed that species T and U were sympatric in Bhabar and Terai villages with predominance of species T. These two sibling species appear to be poor vectors of malaria.
      203. PMID: 10448226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
      204. [edit] Scientific explanation
        The rainbow's appearance is caused by dispersion of sunlight as it goes through raindrops. The light is first refracted as it enters the surface of the raindrop, reflected off the back of the drop, and again refracted as it leaves the drop. The overall effect is that the incoming light is reflected back over a wide range of angles, with the most intense light at an angle of 40°–42°. The angle is independent of the size of the drop, but does depend on its refractive index. Seawater has a higher refractive index than rain water, so the radius of a 'rain'bow in sea spray is smaller than a true rainbow. This is visible to the naked eye by a misalignment of these bows.[2]
      205. The amount by which light is refracted depends upon its wavelength, and hence its colour. Blue light (shorter wavelength) is refracted at a greater angle than red light, but because the area of the back of the droplet has a focal point inside the droplet, the spectrum crosses itself, and therefore the red light appears higher in the sky, and forms the outer colour of the rainbow. Contrary to popular belief, the light at the back of the raindrop does not undergo total internal reflection and some light does emerge from the back. However, light coming out the back of the raindrop does not create a rainbow between the observer and the sun because spectra emitted from the back of the raindrop do not have a maximum of intensity, as the other visible rainbows do, and thus the colours blend together rather than forming a rainbow.


      208. Light rays enter a raindrop from one direction (typically a straight line from the Sun), reflect off the back of the raindrop, and fan out as they leave the raindrop. The light leaving the rainbow is spread over a wide angle, with a maximum intensity of 40.6°–42°.

      210. White light separates into different colours (wavelengths) on entering the raindrop because red light is refracted by a lesser angle than blue light. On leaving the raindrop, the red rays have turned through a smaller angle than the blue rays, producing a rainbow.
      213. Religion and mythology


      216. The end of a rainbow.
        Main article: Rainbows in mythology
      217. The rainbow has a place in legend owing to its beauty and the historical difficulty in explaining the phenomenon.
      218. In Greek mythology, the rainbow was considered to be a path made by a messenger (Iris) between Earth and Heaven. In Chinese mythology, the rainbow was a slit in the sky sealed by Goddess Nüwa using stones of five different colours. In Hindu mythology, the rainbow is called Indradhanush, meaning the bow of Indra, the God of lightning and thunder. In Norse Mythology, a rainbow called the Bifröst Bridge connects the realms of Ásgard and Midgard, homes of the gods and humans, respectively. The Irish leprechaun's secret hiding place for his pot of gold is usually said to be at the end of the rainbow. This place is impossible to reach, because the rainbow is an optical effect which depends on the location of the viewer. When walking towards the end of a rainbow, it will move further away.
      219. After Noah's Deluge, the Bible relates that the rainbow gained meaning as the sign of God's promise that terrestrial life would never again be destroyed by flood (Genesis 9.13-15[14]):
      220. I have set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. When I bring clouds over the earth and the bow is seen in the clouds, I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall never again become a flood to destroy all flesh.
      221. Another ancient portrayal of the rainbow is given in the Epic of Gilgamesh: the rainbow is the "jewelled necklace of the Great Mother Ishtar" that she lifts into the sky as a promise that she "will never forget these days of the great flood" that destroyed her children. (The Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet Eleven)
      222. Then Ishtar arrived. She lifted up the necklace of great jewels that her father, Anu, had created to please her and said, "Heavenly gods, as surely as this jewelled necklace hangs upon my neck, I will never forget these days of the great flood. Let all of the gods except Enlil come to the offering. Enlil may not come, for without reason he brought forth the flood that destroyed my people."

         People's Democracy
        (Weekly Organ of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)
      223. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Vol. XXVII
        No. 41
      224. October 12, 2003
      225.  CPI(M) Prepares For Bandh In Uttaranchal
      226.  Vijay Rawat
      227. A DELEGATION of the Uttaranchal state committee of the CPI(M) met the state’s governor recently, handed over to him a charter of its demands and urged him to direct the state government to discuss and settle the burning issues that are causing immense problems to the people of the state.
      229. The delegation especially drew the governor’s attention to the ordinance issued by him to control the sale and purchase of land in the state. Ostensibly, the ordinance pretends to protect the citizens of the state from the machinations of land mafia. In effect, however, by redefining an agriculturist, it gives to farm owners, absentee landlords, temples, priests, societies, mahants, bureaucrats, high-ranking military officials, etc, total freedom to sale and purchase land in the state. The ordinance, in fact, goes against all earlier provisions to end the land monopoly in favour of the landless. The delegation demanded that a special session of the assembly must be convened to discuss the sensitive land question.
      231. The delegation also discussed with the governor other problems like the question of minimum wage, draconian nature of the forest act, property as the sole criterion for determination of domicile, women’s issues, and the public distribution system.
      234. On September 22, a rally in front of the Vidhan Sabha (state assembly) concluded the CPI(M)’s three months long campaign in the state. The rally was joined by participants from all the 13 districts in the state. A total of 3,000 rallyists, of them 400 women, assembled in the Gandhi Park and then marched through the main streets of the state capital, Dehradun. They were stopped by a police barricade at the entrance to the Vidhan Sabha, where a public meeting was then held. The CPI(M) state committee secretary Vijay Rawat explained to the audience the various aspects of the campaign and the need for further intensification of the struggle. Others speakers like Sajwan, Nautiyal, Negi, Jyoti and others, warned the Congress party’s state government to mend its ways and demarcate its activities from those of the BJP led government at the centre. The charter of demands and the open letter addressed to the chief minister were read before and adopted by the assembled rallyists.
      236. Subhashini Ali, who was the main speaker at the rally, congratulated the different contingents from districts for having come to the state capital in spite of rough weather. She remarked that this rally was better and bigger, both quantitatively and qualitatively, than the one she had attended two years ago. She said it was unfortunate that the new state was saddled with the burden of such a heavy weight as N D Tiwari. His past record has been that he demolishes almost every platform on which he treads. The sad state of Uttar Pradesh and the state of his party in that state bear the stamp of his stints as the chief minister. In these circumstances, the people of Uttaranchal will have to unitedly fight their battles to get anything done, with the red flag as the pivot of struggle. Where are the regional outfits today and what are they doing, she queried. She reminded the audience of the glorious anti-imperialist, anti-feudal and secular traditions of the Uttaranchal people. While fighting for the demands of the people, these glorious traditions of the past will have to be preserved. This task cannot be left to compromisers like N D Tiwari. The speaker was appreciative of the presence of a large number of women in the rally.
      239. The Students Federation of India (SFI) organised on September 11 a seminar on education at Srinagar, the headquarters of Garhwal University, in which many former student leaders and SFI activists took part. Former SFI president and CPI(M) Polit Bureau member Sitaram Yechury was the principle guest and speaker at the seminar. He arrived at Srinagar by road, from Haridwar. While on his way to Srinagar, CPI(M) leaders in Tehri welcomed him at a town known as Kiritnagar. Here he paid floral tributes at the statues of Nagendra Saklani and Bholu Bhandari, communist martyrs of the anti-feudal Praja Mandal struggle of the 1940s.
      241. The audience at the seminar comprised intellectuals, teachers, professionals and former student activists, besides 400 students of Garhwal University. Yechury explained the background of the policies that determine the state of education in the country and in various states. He especially mentioned the trimurti of World Bank, IMF and WTO which, coupled with the trishul agenda of the BJP led government, determine the fate of education and employment in the country. He said the central government’s total surrender to the dictates of American imperialism is the source of problems in the field of education and employment. A struggle against the pro-imperialist policies and an understanding of and struggle against the communal drive of the central government was the need of the hour, he said.
      243. The seminar and Yechury’s visit helped the student community in general to get a focus for their struggle and spurred the SFI to launch a mass movement for the modernisation of the university. An immediate result of the visit has been the heightening of SFI activities in all colleges of the university and in the central campus college. In the current session of student union election, for the first time in the history of the university, the SFI is contesting for a major position in nine colleges. SFI candidates have already won the president and general secretary posts in one campus, namely Pauri.
      247. The CPI(M) state committee had decided to hold 65 small and big meetings all over the state as part of the party’s August campaign and to hold three major conventions at Rudrapur, Karanprayag and Dehradun. These three conventions were held on August 24, 28 and 31 respectively. An extensive campaign was launched in July and it covered centres like Pithoragarh, Pindar valley, Kedar valley, Joshi Math, Pauri, Srinagar, Bajpur, Sitarganj, Nanak Matta, Haldvani, Nainital, Kicha, Almora, Dania, Risikesh, Roorkee, Haridwar, Lal Dhang, Kotdwar, Dinesh Pur, Sahaspur and Gaindi Khatta, etc. A total 40,000 leaflets were distributed during this campaign; 5,000 posters were utilised for publicity and 13 press conferences were held. Shamik Lahiri, member of parliament, addressed the convention at Rudrapur.
      249. These conventions lent a local flavour to the demands and requirements of the people. At the Rudrapur convention, the price of sugarcane and payment of cane arrears as well as draconian forest laws were the main issues, apart from the question of domicile. At Karanprayag, the forest laws, law and order situation, the Iraq war, etc, were the dominant issues. The Dehradun convention focused on the questions of minimum wage, closure and privatisation of industry, and the sugarcane price. The three conventions brought together at least 1,200 persons from toiling sections in different walks of life. The issues these conventions raised have become the focus of struggle and will remain so in the coming period. The September 22 rally in front of the Vishan Sabha also highlighted these issues.
      253. The state government does not seem to be inclined to seriously consider the issued raised by the CPI(M). Hence the party has decided to launch a second campaign in the state, more intense and extensive, from November 1 to 7. This campaign will culminate in a major action like Uttranchal bandh. The state unit of the CPI(M) has appealed to CPI and other democratic parties in the state to join this bandh. Such a united action will help in resolving some of the issues facing the people and will also help in consolidating the non-Congress secular forces in the state.
      254. Galaxy Empire
      256. Troubled Galaxy Destroyed Dreams: Chapter Five
      258. Palash Biswas
      259. "THE Eagle has landed" were the words that thrilled the world in 1969 when man arrived on the moon. It all began on that fatal date!
      261. In 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin erected a U.S. flag when they became the first men to land on the moon.
      263. "The Phoenix has landed" were the words announcing the arrival of the Mars space probe yesterday, in a triumph to excite a new generation.
      265. It is once again a US Flag unfurled on the Face of Human Future, Human destiny!
      267. I remember all those exciting school days in Dinesh Pur, in a District Board High school while the news broke about the Man landing on Moon. Way back in 1969. Thamma was alive then. She never believed. She believed in Moon God in accordance with conservative Hindu Mythology. But for us, the younger lot it was a triumph of Science and technology over Nature and all Godly fotrces including colorful myths. We debated a lot on the topic whether science is a boon or curse for Mankind.
      269. Now I know all about the Galaxy Empire and Imperialism, the Global Hegemony and ruling Class. It is not a debate on Science and technology. Rather it is all about Star wars. It is in fact the Real encounter of third dimention which occupies everything on and arount the COSMOS.
      271. Moon Quest thrilled us a lot. Mars Adventure sounds like Colonisation in cosmos.
      273. Phoenix landed gently on thrusters operated by remote control, whereas astronauts guided Eagle down to the moon.
      275. Man travelled to the moon in days. The voyage to Mars took more than nine months. The moon is a rock, whereas Mars once had water. Phoenix will drill into the icy cap to take samples of organic molecules and microbes.
      277. This promises to be another "giant leap for mankind" in our enduring quest to find whether we are alone in the universe.
      279. We may find proof of other life on the mysterious Red Planet.
      281. The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, impacted the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959. Prior to that the only available means of exploration had been observation. The invention of the optical telescope brought about the first leap in the quality of lunar observations. Galileo Galilei is generally credited as the first person to use a telescope for astronomical purposes; having made his own telescope in 1609, the mountains and craters on the lunar surface were among his first observations using it.
      283. In 1969, Project Apollo first successfully landed people on the Moon. They placed scientific experiments there and returned rocks and data that suggested the Moon is of a similar composition to the Earth.
      284. And see, how Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov  downplayed his country’s placing of the national flag under the ice at the North Pole, saying it was not meant to signal Russia’s claim to the Arctic.Interest in the region is intensifying because global warming is shrinking the polar ice, and that could someday open up resource development and new shipping lanes.
      286. A Russian scientific expedition deposited a rustproof titanium version of country’s flag on the seabed at the pole last year. The act heated up the controversy over an area that a U.S. study suggests may contain as much as 25 per cent of the world’s undiscovered oil and gas.
      288. "It should be seen basically the same way as the American flag was planted on the moon sometime ago," Lavrov said Tuesday
      290. Under the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, Arctic nations have 10 years after ratification to prove their claims under the largely uncharted polar ice pack. All countries with claims to the Arctic have ratified the treaty, except the United States.Canada has announced plans to build a new army training centre and a deep-water port in Arctic waters. Norway, the United States and Denmark also have claims in the vast region.
      292. Sonner or later, in near future, we have to witness the Arctic Fight escalated Galaxywide!
      294. Why not?
      296.  Under the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, Arctic nations have 10 years after ratification to prove their claims under the largely uncharted polar ice pack. All countries with claims to the Arctic have ratified the treaty, except the United States.
      298. Canada has announced plans to build a new army training centre and a deep-water port in Arctic waters. Norway, the United States and Denmark also have claims in the vast region.
      300. Denmark is gathering scientific evidence to show that the Lomonosov Ridge, a 2,000-kilometre underwater mountain range, is attached to Greenland, making it a geological extension of the sparsely populated giant island that is a semi-autonomous Danish territory.
      302. A UN panel is supposed to decide the Arctic control by 2020.
      304. Natural Resources Minister Gary Lunn is representing Canada at the meeting on the Arctic this week in Ilulissat, Greenland. Officials from Denmark, Norway, Russia and the United States will also be there.
      307. Can you create a power base strong enough to unite the galaxy and begin a new golden age? That’s the task that lies before you in Fantasy Flight Games’ epic …Eradicate the numerously superior heretic alien forces that threaten the Empire. The word and force of the Emperor still rules the galaxy.The Empire’s faceless soldiers may have the worst aim in a galaxy far, far away, but what happens when the ones who survive a battle against the Rebellion …"Star Wars" and "The Empire Strikes Back" had hit it big, but they were set in a galaxy far, far away and had mythic overtones. …… far away galaxy where George Lucas staged his epic space operas. But will the empire truly strike a victory for science education? For more than 1000 years, Shi’ite Islam has, in fact, been a galaxy of Shi’isms - a kind of Fourth World of its own, always cursed by political exclusion …As a battle-scarred era nears its end, a shattering power play is about to stun the entire galaxy . . . and set in motion events that will alter destinies …Giant robots fighting it out for the sake of the galaxy! What’s not to like??
      309. Phoenix is the latest in a long list of NASA missions to Mars that started back in the 1960s. Along with the Moon, Mars embodied the race to space when the US and the Soviet Union vied to become the first to land on the Red Planet.
      311. To date, there has been a a total of 38 missions to Mars, emanating from the US, Russia, Japan and Europe. Only three probes have successfully landed on the planet. The first exploitable pictures came from a 1971 NASA mission. But it was the Soviet probes Mars 4 and Mars 5, two years later, which revealed the presence of CO2 and ozone in Mars’ atmosphere.
      313. In 1976, the US secured its own close-up shots of the face of Mars, its mountains, volcanoes and even some clouds. The following probe Viking 2 went further, showing the scars left by massive floods.
      315. Twenty one years later, the search for life on Mars continued with NASA’s Pathfinder probe and its Sojourner vehicle, a four-wheel drive meant to explore and take photos of the planet’s surface.
      316. A few months later, in September 1997, NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor reached the Red Planet after a 10-month journey. It succeeded in sending more than 240,000 pictures back to Earth. These included shots of a massive sand storm, confirming the presence of water clouds and ice on Mars.
      317. A few years later, the European Space Agency made a breakthrough with its Mars Express probe, which beamed back pictures of what appears to be a sea of ice - a kind of Martian permafrost.
      318. Today, NASA’s twin robots Opportunity and Spirit - which landed in early 2004 - continue to scour the Red Planet in search of signs of water.
      319. Meanwhile, beneath the surface, the quest for signs of life also goes on with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. It has sent some impressive footage, which Mars fans will have to make do with as there are no plans of sending a man to the Red Planet anytime before the 2020’s.
      321. MADISYN, 8, at left, and Mason Parisi, 6, use an interactive screen Tuesday to explore a virtual science outpost on the moon at a special NASA exhibit in Bristol. The traveling exhibit, which will be open today and Thursday from 3 to 7 p.m. at the Imagine Nation Museum, allows visitors to examine a moon rock and take a peek into NASA’s plans for returning humans to the moon. Madisyn and Mason, who live in Bristol, are being watched by their mother, Jennifer. Marlene Ocasio of Bristol and her children, Annaliz, 2, and Marcos, 5, are at right. (ROSS TAYLOR / May 27, 2008)
      323. The moon may be 238,000 miles from Earth, but a NASA exhibit currently at the Imagine Nation Museum is helping to bring it a whole lot closer.
      324. The traveling exhibit, on display at the museum through Thursday, allows visitors to take a peek into NASA’s future plans for lunar exploration and even examine a moon rock.
      325. The exhibit, titled the "NASA Exploration Experience," is housed in a large trailer and features a presentation on NASA’s goal of returning humans to the moon by 2020.
      326. The roughly 10-minute presentation uses a variety of ways to showcase NASA’s plan. Beyond the moon rock, highlights include an interactive screen that allows visitors to examine a lunar-science station and a video room that simulates a trip to the moon.
      327. We could never imagine all about this. Our Fairy Tales would never visualise the Galaxy in Virtual Reality !
      328. You are an intergalactic ruler, who on a single planet starts. Mit der Zeit kannst du höhere Technologien entwickeln und verschiedene Strategien verfolgen: Ob du der Schrecken der Galaxie mit einer gigantischen Flotte wirst oder aber eine Verteidigung aufbaust, welche kalt lächelnd die Trümmer gegnerischer Schiffe vom Himmel regnen lässt, liegt ganz bei dir. By the time you can develop better technologies and different strategies: Whether you are the horrors of the galaxy with a giant fleet will, or a defence aufbaust the cold smile the rubble enemy ships can rain from the sky, is up to you. Erweitere dein Imperium, indem du weitere Kolonien besiedelst; treibe Handel mit anderen Spielern oder führe Krieg; schließe Bündnisse oder unterjoche deine Nachbarschaft mit harter Hand. Expand your empire, by more besiedelst colonies, trade goods with other players or bring war; join alliances or enslave your neighbourhood with hard hands!
      329. In the future, the survival of humanity stands on the edge of utter ruin as three powerful factions vie for control of the galaxy. Take command of one of three space-faring races as you work to establish your domination of the galaxy in Sins of a Solar Empire. Through a combination of diplomacy, economic skill, cultural influence, and sheer military might you will establish order over your corner of the galaxy!
      330. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: `The Galactic Empire is one of the main factions in the Star Wars universe. It is a tyrannical, galaxy-spanning regime established by the series’ lead villain, Palpatine, to replace the Galactic Republic in Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. The Galactic Empire is introduced in A New Hope. The Empire also appears in The Empire Strikes Back, and in Return of the Jedi.
      331. The Empire’s origins are explained in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith, where it replaces the Galactic Republic in the midst of a crisis orchestrated by Palpatine, then the Republic’s Supreme Chancellor. In a scene towards the end of the film, Palpatine appoints himself Emperor in the presence of the Galactic Senate, afterwards the Imperial Senate. By the time of A New Hope, the Empire has transformed into a totalitarian regime, still struggling with the Rebel Alliance.’
      333. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia : `Galactic empires are a common theme in science fiction. Many authors have either used a galaxy-spanning empire as background, or written about the growth or decline of such an empire. The capital of a galactic empire is frequently a core world or home world. Some of these empires are based on the Roman Empire; the Galactic Empire of Isaac Asimov’s Foundation series (which inspired empires of later writers and film-makers) being an obvious example, as is the Terran Empire of Poul Anderson’s Dominic Flandry[citation needed].
      334. The events in Frank Herbert’s "Dune" universe, where hitherto disregarded desert-dwellers create a powerful new religion and burst out to topple an old empire and build a new one, are clearly modeled on the rise of Islam (all the more obvious since the languge of the Fremen is clearly descended from Arabic).
      335. The best known to the general public today is probably the empire from Star Wars, which was formed in turn from the Galactic Republic.
      336. Most of these galaxy-spanning domains depend on some form of transportation capable of quickly or instantly crossing vast cosmic distances (usually measured in light-years), many times faster than could a beam of light. These invariably require some type of propulsion or displacement technology forbidden by Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, or that otherwise relies on theories that circumvent or supersede relativity. (See: warp drive; hyperspace; Alcubierre drive.)
      337. The term "galactic empire" has, no doubt because of association with the Empire from Star Wars, gained an unfavorable reputation. However, the Galactic Empires from Foundation and the CoDominium universe are relatively benign organizations.’
      338. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
      339. `The Moon (Latin: Luna) is Earth’s only natural satellite and the fifth largest natural satellite in the Solar System.
      340. The average centre-to-centre distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,403 km, about thirty times the diameter of the Earth. The Moon’s diameter is 3,474 km,[6] a little more than a quarter that of the Earth. This means that the Moon’s volume is about 2 percent that of Earth and the pull of gravity at its surface about 17 percent that of the Earth. The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth every 27.3 days (the orbital period), and the periodic variations in the geometry of the Earth–Moon–Sun system are responsible for the lunar phases that repeat every 29.5 days (the synodic period).
      341. The Moon is the only celestial body to which humans have travelled and upon which humans have landed. The first artificial object to escape Earth’s gravity and pass near the Moon was the Soviet Union’s Luna 1, the first artificial object to impact the lunar surface was Luna 2, and the first photographs of the normally occluded far side of the Moon were made by Luna 3, all in 1959. The first spacecraft to perform a successful lunar soft landing was Luna 9, and the first unmanned vehicle to orbit the Moon was Luna 10, both in 1966.[6] The United States (U.S.) Apollo program achieved the only manned missions to date, resulting in six landings between 1969 and 1972. Human exploration of the Moon ceased with the conclusion of the Apollo program, although several countries have announced plans to send people or robotic spacecraft to the Moon.’
      342. `In the philosophy of Aristotle, the heavens, starting at the Moon, were the realm of perfection, the sublunary region was the realm of change and corruption, and any resemblance between these regions was strictly ruled out. Aristotle himself suggested that the Moon partook perhaps of some contamination from the realm of corruption.[1] In his little book On the Face in the Moon’s Orb, Plutarch expressed rather different views on the relationship between the Moon and Earth. He suggested that the Moon had deep recesses in which the light of the Sun did not reach and that the spots are nothing but the shadows of rivers or deep chasms. He also entertained the possibility that the Moon was inhabited. It had been suggested already in antiquity that the Moon was a perfect mirror and that its markings were reflections of earthly features, but this explanation was easily dismissed because the face of the Moon never changes as it moves about the Earth.[1] The explanation that finally became standard was that there were variations of "density" in the Moon that caused this otherwise perfectly spherical body to appear the way it does.[1] The perfection of the Moon, and therefore the heavens, was thus preserved.
      343. The medieval followers of Aristotle, in the Islamic world and then in Christian Europe, tried to make sense of the lunar spots in Aristotelian terms.[1] Thomas Harriot, as well as Galilei, drew the first telescopic representation of the Moon and observed it for several years. His drawings, however, remained unpublished.[1] The first map of the Moon was made by the Belgian cosmographer and astronomer Michael Florent van Langren in 1645.[1] Two years later a much more influential effort was published by Johannes Hevelius. In 1647 Hevelius published Selenographia, the first treatise entirely devoted to the Moon. Hevelius’s nomenclature, although used in Protestant countries until the eighteenth century, was replaced by the system published in 1651 by the Jesuit astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli, who gave the large naked-eye spots the names of seas and the telescopic spots (now called craters) the name of philosophers and astronomers.[1] In 1753 Croatian astronomer Roger Joseph Boscovich discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon. In 1824 Franz von Gruithuisen explained the formation of craters as a result of meteorite strikes.[2]’
      344. Space race
      345. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
      346. The Cold War-inspired space race between the Soviet Union and the United States of America accelerated with a focus on the Moon. This included many scientifically important firsts, such as the first photographs of the until then unseen far side of the moon in 1959 by the Soviet Union, and culminated with the landing of the first humans on the moon in 1969, widely seen around the world as one of the pivotal events of the 20th century, and indeed of human history in general.

      347. Landing map of Apollo, Surveyor and Luna missions.
        Apollo 17 astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to a boulder at Taurus-Littrow during the third EVA (extravehicular activity). NASA photo.The first man-made object to reach the Moon was the unmanned Soviet probe Luna 2, which made a hard landing on September 14, 1959, at 21:02:24 Z. The far side of the Moon was first photographed on October 7, 1959 by the Soviet probe Luna 3. In an effort to compete with these Soviet successes, U.S. President John F. Kennedy proposed the national goal of landing a man on the Moon. Speaking to a Joint Session of Congress on May 25, 1961, he said
      348. "First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space."[3]
      349. The Soviets nonetheless remained in the lead for some time. Luna 9 was the first probe to soft land on the Moon and transmit pictures from the Lunar surface on February 3, 1966. It was proven that a lunar lander would not sink into a thick layer of dust, as had been feared. The first artificial satellite of the Moon was the Soviet probe Luna 10 (launched March 31, 1966). One of the main impediments to human exploration of the Moon was development of adequate heat shield technology to permit atmospheric re-entry without completely burning up a manned spacecraft. The U.S. gained early supremacy in this field through NASA research in thermogravimetric experiments in hypersonic wind tunnels.
      350. On December 24, 1968, the crew of Apollo 8, Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders became the first human beings to see the far side of the Moon with their own eyes (as opposed to seeing it on a photograph). Humans first landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969. The first man to walk on the lunar surface was Neil Armstrong, commander of the U.S. mission Apollo 11. The first robot lunar rover to land on the Moon was the Soviet vessel Lunokhod 1 on November 17, 1970 as part of the Lunokhod program. The last man to stand on the Moon was Eugene Cernan, who as part of the mission Apollo 17 walked on the Moon in December 1972. See also: A full list of lunar Apollo astronauts.
      351. Moon rock samples were brought back to Earth by three Luna missions (Luna 16, 20, and 24) and the Apollo missions 11 through 17 (excepting Apollo 13, which aborted its planned lunar landing).
      352. From the mid-1960’s to the mid-1970’s there were 65 moon landings (with 10 in 1971 alone), but after Luna 24 in 1976 they suddenly stopped. The Soviet Union started focusing on Venus and space stations and the U.S. on Mars and beyond.
      353. [edit] Recent exploration
        In 1990 Japan visited the moon with the Hiten spacecraft, becoming the third country to orbit the moon. The spacecraft released the Hagormo probe into lunar orbit, but the transmitter failed, thereby preventing further scientific use of the mission. In September 2007, the SELENE spacecraft was launched, with the objectives "to obtain scientific data of the lunar origin and evolution and to develop the technology for the future lunar exploration", according to the JAXA official website.[4]
      354. NASA launched the Clementine mission in 1994, and Lunar Prospector in 1998.
      355. In 1998, HGS-1, a commercial satellite from Hong Kong, China, performed two flybys of the moon in order to change orbital inclination.
      356. The European Space Agency launched a small, low-cost lunar orbital probe called SMART 1 on September 27, 2003. SMART 1’s primary goal was to take three-dimensional X-ray and infrared imagery of the lunar surface. SMART 1 entered lunar orbit on November 15, 2004 and continued to make observations until September 3, 2006, when it was intentionally crashed into the lunar surface in order to study the impact plume.[5]
      357. The People’s Republic of China has begun the Chang’e program for exploring the Moon and is investigating the prospect of lunar mining, specifically looking for the isotope helium-3 for use as an energy source on Earth.[6] China launched the Chang’e 1 robotic lunar orbiter on 2007-10-24.
      358. [edit] Future plans
        See also: List of future lunar missions
      359. India’s Chandrayaan-1.
        Chang’e 1 spacecraftOn 2004-01-14, US President George W. Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration, a plan leading to new manned lunar missions by 2020. NASA’s plan to accomplish that goal was announced on March 19, 2005,[7] and was promptly dubbed "Apollo 2.0" by critics. A preliminary unmanned mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, is scheduled for launch in 2008. LRO will take high resolution imagery of the moon’s surface and will carry the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), which will investigate the possible existence of water in Shackleton crater.
      360. China plans to land a rover on the moon in 2012, and to conduct a sample return mission in 2017. China has entered into an agreement to work with Russia to eventually land astronauts on the moon before 2020.[8]
      361. Japan has rescheduled LUNAR-A possibly before 2010.[9] Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) plans a manned lunar landing around 2020 that would lead to a manned lunar base by 2030; however, there is no budget yet for this project.[10]
      362. India expects to launch Chandrayaan, an unmanned lunar orbiter, by April 2008. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) also plans to undertake a totally indigenous manned space exploration in the next decade by planning to send a person to space by 2014 and to have a person walk on the moon by 2020.[11]
      363. Russia also announced to resume its previously frozen project Luna-Glob, an unmanned lander and orbiter, which is slated to launch in 2012.[12]
      364. Germany also announced in March 2007 that it will launch a national lunar orbiter, LEO in 2012.[13]
      365. In August 2007, NASA stated that all future missions and explorations of the moon will be done entirely using the metric system. This was done to improve cooperation with space agencies of other countries which already use the metric system.[14]
      366. The European Space Agency has also announced its intention to send a manned mission to the Moon, as part of the Aurora programme.
      367. On September 13, 2007, the X Prize Foundation, in concert with Google, Inc., announced the Google Lunar X Prize. This contest requires competitors "to land a privately funded robotic rover on the Moon that is capable of completing several mission objectives, including roaming the lunar surface for at least 500 meters and sending video, images and data back to the Earth."[15]
      368. Mars
        From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      369. Mars (pronounced ['m??rz] (help·info)) is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after Mars, the Roman god of war. It is also referred to as the "Red Planet" because of its reddish appearance as seen from Earth.
      370. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts and polar ice caps of Earth. It is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon. In addition to its geographical features, Mars’ rotational period and seasonal cycles are likewise similar to those of Earth.
      371. Until the first flyby of Mars by Mariner 4 in 1965, it was speculated that there might be liquid water on the planet’s surface. This was based on observations of periodic variations in light and dark patches, particularly in the polar latitudes, which looked like seas and continents, while long, dark striations were interpreted by some observers as irrigation channels for liquid water. These straight line features were later proven not to exist and were instead explained as optical illusions. Still, of all the planets in our Solar System other than Earth, Mars is the most likely to harbor liquid water, and perhaps life.[citation needed]
      372. Mars is currently host to three functional orbiting spacecraft: Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. This is more than any planet in the Solar System except Earth. The surface is also home to the two Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity), the lander Phoenix, and several inert landers and rovers that either failed or completed missions. Geological evidence gathered by these and preceding missions suggests that Mars previously had large-scale water coverage, while observations also indicate that small geyser-like water flows have occurred in recent years.[6] Observations by NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor show evidence that parts of the southern polar ice cap have been receding.[7]
      373. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Martian Trojan asteroid. Mars can be seen from Earth with the naked eye. Its apparent magnitude reaches -2.9,[4] a brightness surpassed only by Venus, the Moon, and the Sun, though most of the time Jupiter will appear brighter to the naked eye than Mars.
      374. Exploration
        Main article: Exploration of Mars

        Viking Lander 1 siteDozens of spacecraft, including orbiters, landers, and rovers, have been sent to Mars by the Soviet Union, the United States, Europe, and Japan to study the planet’s surface, climate, and geology.
      375. Roughly two-thirds of all spacecraft destined for Mars have failed in one manner or another before completing or even beginning their missions. While this high failure rate can be ascribed to technical problems, enough have either failed or lost communications for causes unknown for some to search for other explanations. Examples include an Earth-Mars "Bermuda Triangle", a Mars Curse, or even the long-standing NASA in-joke, the "Great Galactic Ghoul" that feeds on Martian spacecraft.[70]
      376. [edit] Past missions
        The first successful fly-by mission to Mars was NASA’s Mariner 4, launched in 1964. The first successful objects to land on the surface were two Soviet probes, Mars 2 and Mars 3 from the Mars probe program, launched in 1971, but both lost contact within seconds of landing. Then came the 1975 NASA launches of the Viking program, which consisted of two orbiters, each having a lander; both landers successfully touched down in 1976 and remained operational for 6 and 3 years, for Viking 1 and Viking 2 respectively. The Viking landers relayed the first color pictures of Mars[71] and also mapped the surface of Mars so well that the images are still sometimes used to this day. The Soviet probes Phobos 1 and 2 were sent to Mars in 1988 to study Mars and its two moons, unfortunately Phobos 1 lost contact on the way to Mars, and Phobos 2, while successfully photographing Mars and Phobos, failed just before it was set to release two landers on Phobos’s surface.
      377. Following the 1992 failure of the Mars Observer orbiter, NASA launched the Mars Global Surveyor in 1996. This mission was a complete success, having finished its primary mapping mission in early 2001. Contact was lost with the probe in November 2006 during its third extended program, spending exactly 10 operational years in space. Only a month after the launch of the Surveyor, NASA launched the Mars Pathfinder, carrying a robotic exploration vehicle Sojourner, which landed in the Ares Vallis on Mars. This mission was another big success, and received much publicity, partially due to the many spectacular images that were sent back to Earth.[72]
      378. [edit] Current missions

        Spirit’s lander on MarsIn 2001 NASA launched the successful Mars Odyssey orbiter, which is still in orbit as of March 2008, and the ending date has been extended to September 2008. Odyssey’s Gamma Ray Spectrometer detected significant amounts of hydrogen in the upper metre or so of Mars’s regolith. This hydrogen is thought to be contained in large deposits of water ice.[73]
      379. In 2003, the ESA launched the Mars Express craft, consisting of the Mars Express Orbiter and the lander Beagle 2. Beagle 2 failed during descent and was declared lost in early February 2004.[74] In early 2004 the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer team announced it had detected methane in the Martian atmosphere. ESA announced in June 2006 the discovery of aurorae on Mars.[75]
      380. Also in 2003, NASA launched the twin Mars Exploration Rovers named Spirit (MER-A) and Opportunity (MER-B). Both missions landed successfully in January 2004 and have met or exceeded all their targets. Among the most significant scientific returns has been conclusive evidence that liquid water existed at some time in the past at both landing sites. Martian dust devils and windstorms have occasionally cleaned both rovers’ solar panels, and thus increased their lifespan.[76]
      381. On August 12, 2005 the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter probe was launched toward the planet, arriving in orbit on March 10, 2006 to conduct a two-year science survey. The orbiter will map the Martian terrain and weather to find suitable landing sites for upcoming lander missions. It also contains an improved telecommunications link to Earth, with more bandwidth than all previous missions combined.
      382. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter snapped the first image of a series of active avalanches near the planet’s north pole, scientists said March 3, 2008.[77]

      383. A prototype of the Phoenix lander practices robotic arm control at a test site in Death Valley.The most recent mission to Mars, not counting the brief flyby by the Dawn spacecraft to Ceres and Vesta, is the NASA Phoenix Mars lander, which launched August 4, 2007 and arrived on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008[78]. The lander has a robotic arm with a 2.5 m reach and capable of digging a meter into the Martian soil. The lander will be in an area with an 80% chance of ice being less than 30 cm below the surface, and has a microscopic camera capable of resolving to one-thousandth the width of a human hair.[79]
      384. [edit] Future missions
        Phoenix will be followed by the Mars Science Laboratory in 2009, a bigger, faster (90 m/hour), and smarter version of the Mars Exploration Rovers. Experiments include a laser chemical sample that can deduce the make-up of rocks at a distance of 13 m.[80]
      385. The joint Russian and Chinese Phobos-Grunt sample-return mission, to return samples of Mars’s moon Phobos, is scheduled for a 2009 launch. In 2012 the ESA plans to launch its first Rover to Mars, the ExoMars rover will be capable of drilling 2 m into the soil in search of organic molecules.[81][82]
      386. The Finnish-Russian MetNet mission will consist of sending tens of small landers on the Martian surface in order to establish a wide-spread surface observation network to investigate the planet’s atmospheric structure, physics and meteorology.

      387. Palash Biswas

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